True Crime: The Murder of William Brown

By Brian K. Crawford

William Brown was born in Zanesville, Ohio, in 1825. Around 1847 he moved to Missouri and lived there for five years, during which he met and married 15-year-old Sarah Cole. In 1853, three days after their marriage, they took a wagon train to California and settled at Pine Grove in Sierra County. In 1854 they had a daughter Margaret. A year later they moved to San Antonio Township in far northern Marin County. They bought a 1,300-acre ranch on Chileno Valley Road. Over the next fifteen years, Sarah gave William eight more children, though three died in early childhood. The ranch did well, and the family prospered. By 1876, when William was 50, their children ranged in age from Emma at 16 down to Edgar Allen Poe Brown, just 6.

On Saturday, October 21, 1876, William Brown drove his two-horse buggy the nine miles to Petaluma, where he sold his ranch produce. He must have made a profitable sale, because when he started for home that afternoon he was carrying more than $70 in gold and silver — worth more than $3,400 today.

He drove out Western Avenue and turned left onto Chileno Valley Road. Apparently his success put him in a good mood, because he stopped at Charles Bowman’s Dairyman Saloon around 4 PM. Among the other patrons at the time were two men in their early 20s — a California-born Chilean named Juan Salazar and Andronico Yguerra, a Native American. Brown seemed to be in excellent spirits. He displayed three gold coins and bought a round of drinks for the house, and later a second. Around 5 PM, now a bit drunk, Brown said he had to get home. As he was climbing into his buggy, Salazar and Yguerra came out of the saloon. Salazar said he was going Brown’s way and Brown offered him a lift. Yguerra went the other direction.

At 5:45, Brown and Salazar arrived at Wallace’s Laguna House Saloon, near where Salazar was living. They stopped in for another round of drinks. Brown became quite intoxicated and invited Salazar to come home with him. Salazar agreed and left, saying he just wanted to go get his coat. Brown waited a while, but when Salazar did not return, gave up and resumed his drive alone.

Juan Salazar went to the home of a friend, Alex Martin. Salazar said he wanted to visit a friend, Cedro Bojorques, and Martin loaned him a horse. Meanwhile, Yguerra had borrowed a horse from Ignacio Howe. Just after six o’clock, they both rode off south, the way Brown had driven.

They caught up to Brown’s buggy at seven o’clock, just as he crossed the bridge over San Antonio Creek and entered Marin County, less than a mile from his house. Salazar threw his lariat and caught it around Brown’s neck. He checked his horse, dragging Brown out of the vehicle onto the road. Yguerra held the horses while Salazar searched the dazed rancher and took the remaining money from him. Brown screamed for help, but Salazar struck him a heavy blow on the head with his revolver. Then he pulled out a dagger and stabbed Brown four times in the chest, killing him instantly. Salazar and Yguerra searched the body, taking a gold watch and chain and even stripping off his wedding ring. Knowing that these items might be recognized, they wrapped the watch, chain and ring in a bandanna and buried it in the bank of the creek to retrieve later. They tied Brown’s team to a fence and rode hurriedly back toward Petaluma.

Map showing locations of William Brown’s home, the Dairyman’s Saloon, and the Laguna Saloon, along Chileno Valley Road, near the Marin and Sonoma County line.

Around 7 PM, William Brown’s son Peter heard screams from the road. A moment later a friend, P. Zamarini, arrived to tell Peter he saw a team and buggy tethered to the fence by the bridge and thought it was his father’s. Peter and several others rushed out to the road. Seeing the team, he ran to the spot. The rig was empty. By now it was dark, and they spread out to search for Brown. Forty yards toward the house Peter found his father’s bloody and lifeless body sprawled in the ditch.

Sonoma County Sheriff Edward Latapie arrived to investigate early Sunday morning with ex-Marshal James Knowles. They interviewed the landlords at the two saloons and heard that Brown had flaunted his money at both and that the Chileno and the Indian had been seen to follow him out. Within hours he had arrested Yguerra and the next day, after a pursuit to Marshal’s Landing on Tomales Bay and back, Salazar was picked up. Upon questioning, Salazar and Yguerra first denied any involvement. But as more witnesses arrived to fill in the details of their movements that night, a strong net of circumstantial evidence tightened around them. After hours of interrogation, Salazar made a full confession. He told Knowles where the remaining loot could be found, and led him right to it. When he heard this, Yguerra also confessed, though each man said the other had committed the actual murder.

Feeling in town ran high. William Brown was a wealthy and popular citizen and much admired for his kindness and sense of the right. Indignant people gathered outside the jail, muttering about stringing up the two suspects. Sheriff Latapie posted extra guards around the jail.

But a question of jurisdiction arose. After examining evidence at the murder scene, it was determined the crime had been committed a few yards within Marin County. Marin County Sheriff James Tunstead went to Petaluma to transport Salazar and Yguerra to the San Rafael jail, located in the basement of the courthouse on Fourth Street. This turned out to be more complicated than expected.

As the reported on October 26:

William Brown’s gravesite at Two Rock Presbyterian Church Cemetery, Sonoma County

On October 28th, one week after the murder, Salazar and Yguerra were examined by Justice William S. Hughes. The men were offered legal counsel but refused it. After hearing testimony from a number of witnesses Judge Hughes said, without a moment’s hesitation, “I will hold them to answer for murder before the Grand Jury.”

While the case was moving through the legal system, Brown’s widow Sarah petitioned Judge Joseph Almy for a letter of administration to authorize her to serve as executor of her husband’s estate. She was required to file a bond equal to the estimated value of the estate, which was determined to be $90,000 (about $2.5 million today). She posted the bonds and received the letter on November 30.

On December 14, the Grand Jury indicted both men on a charge of murder, without bail. The next day an article appeared in the stating that “Master G[lenn] A. Wallace, a lad not 14 years of age, arrested the Indian who is now indicted for the murder of William Brown. Young Wallace traced up the points himself, and made the arrest, being assisted in putting on the handcuffs by Fred Kuhule. He has frequently distinguished himself before by his deeds of bravery and quick wit. He will get half the reward offered by the Governor if the party is convicted.” (A few days later the reported that Detective Kuhule actually made the arrest).

Marin County Courthouse, which sat at the corner of Fourth and A Streets in San Rafael. The County Jail was located in the basement. Anne T. Kent California Room Collection.

Yguerra’s case went to trial on Monday, March 26, 1877, with District Attorney Bowers appearing for the prosecution and Hepburn Wilkins for the defense. The landlords of the two saloons testified, as did the men who loaned horses to Salazar and Yguerra. Peter Brown told the details of his finding of his father’s body. After three days of testimony, the jury convicted Yguerra of murder. On April 4th, Yguerra’s attorneys argued for a mistrial, saying the jury did not specify the degree of the murder. The charge was reduced to second-degree murder and Andronico Yguerra was sentenced to twenty years in prison.

Salazar’s trial started the next day, March 29th, under District Judge Jackson Temple. As the reported on April 5th:

Witnesses testified to seeing two men riding north across the San Antonio Creek bridge just after the time of the murder. Others said they knew Salazar always carried a double-edged dagger with a pearl handle. The medical examiner reported that the wounds were inflicted by a double-edged blade exactly matching Salazar’s dagger. Others said Salazar and Yguerra paid off some debts and bought rounds of drinks the day after the murder when they had been broke the day before.

Salazar took the stand and said he had gotten the money from selling some quail he had shot. He tried to put all the blame on Andronico Yguerra.

The jury took less than twenty minutes to reach a verdict: guilty of murder in the first degree, with no recommendation for mercy. At the sentencing the next day, Salazar’s attorney Hepburn Wilkins filed a motion for a mistrial, but it was denied. Judge Temple said:

That same evening, Yguerra tried to commit suicide by cutting his throat with a knife he somehow obtained. But the knife was very dull and the operation so painful that he gave it up and he was sent to prison with a bandaged throat.

On April 28, Judge Temple set Salazar’s execution for May 31st. On May 16th, Salazar filed a complaint with the sheriff against his partner Yguerra and Sebrian “Veto” Galindo, saying the three of them murdered an old man named McKnight at Tomales Bay four years earlier. Salazar provided many details of the robbery and murder, but when Sheriff Tunstead investigated, he determined that Salazar had been in jail in Santa Rosa the day the murder was committed. No one was charged.

Preparations for the hanging were begun. There was talk of saving the cost of building a scaffold at the jail by borrowing a gallows from Sacramento that had already been used to hang two men. But Sheriff Tunstead hired local carpenter George W. Bond to build a firm and substantial scaffold just outside the west door of the courthouse. He also built a 20-foot-high board fence enclosing all the space between the fences and the sidewalk on Fifth Street.

On Thursday, May 31st, as the reported:

Sarah Cole Brown Ward, Courtesy of Cindy Millikan, Ancestry.com

In 1878, William Brown’s widow Sarah married George Franklin Ward. She was 38, he was 22. They built a new two-story home that was considered a showplace and much admired. On June 12, 1883, while the family was at church, a fire started in the kitchen and the house was totally destroyed. It was only partially insured. She died at age 66 in Petaluma in 1906 and was buried in Two Rock.

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