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Value creation in circular business models

Photo by Brad Strait on Unsplash


Photo by Lyle Wilkinson on Unsplash

Creating value by changing the loops

Photo by Sam Carter on Unsplash

Sources and further reading:

  1. CIRAIG — The Circular Economy Working Group of the International Life Cycle Chair (ILC Chair) (2015): Circular economy: A critical literature review of concepts.
  2. Hansen EG, Revellio F (2020): Circular value creation architectures. Make, ally, buy, or laissez-faire. Journal of Industrial Ecology 24:1250–1273; DOI: 10.1111/jiec.13016
  3. Tapaninaho R, Heikkinen A (2022): Value creation in circular economy business for sustainability: A stakeholder relationship perspective. Business strategy and the Environment 2022:1–13; DOI: 10.1002/bse.3002
  4. EC (2015): Closing the loop — An EU action plan for the Circular Economy.
  5. JRC — Raw materials information system.
  6. Quijano C (2020): What is Product-as-a-Service (PaaS)?
  7. EMF (2014): Accelerating the scale-­‐up across global supply chains. Ellen MacArthur Foundation.



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Maja Berden Zrimec

Maja Berden Zrimec

PhD in biology, content writer, senior researcher and project manager, algae expert