Copy-On-Write(COW) in Swift: Efficient Memory Management

Deepak Carpenter
Published in
3 min readJun 1, 2023

Copy-On-Write (COW) is a memory management technique used in Swift that enables efficient sharing and mutation of data. It helps balance the trade-off between performance and memory consumption, ensuring that resources are utilized optimally. In this blog post, we will explore the concept of Copy-On-Write in Swift, understand its benefits, and see how it can be implemented in your code.

What is Copy-On-Write? Copy-On-Write is a strategy where the data is not immediately copied when multiple variables reference the same underlying data. Instead, a new copy is created only when one of the variables attempts to modify the data. Until then, the variables share a reference to the same memory location, reducing unnecessary memory duplication.

The Benefits of Copy-On-Write:

  1. Memory Efficiency:
    Copy-On-Write reduces memory consumption by avoiding unnecessary data duplication. When multiple variables reference the same data, memory is efficiently shared until a modification is made, at which point a copy is created.
  2. Performance Optimization:
    Copy-On-Write minimizes the overhead associated with copying large data structures. Since the data is not immediately duplicated, it saves time and computational resources, especially when dealing with complex and memory-intensive operations.

Implementing Copy-On-Write in Swift: To implement Copy-On-Write in Swift, you can take advantage of value types and utilize the struct type rather than class. By default, Swift value types are copy-on-write, which means they share data until a mutation occurs.

Here’s an example to illustrate how Copy-On-Write works:

final class Ref<T> {
var value: T
init(_ v: T) { value = v }

struct Box<T> {
private var ref: Ref<T>
init(_ x: T) { ref = Ref(x) }

var value: T {
get { return ref.value }
set {
if !isKnownUniquelyReferenced(&ref) {
ref = Ref(newValue)
ref.value = newValue

func printAddress(address o: UnsafeRawPointer ) {
print(String(format: "%p", Int(bitPattern: o)))

struct Employee {
var name: String
var id: Int

init(name: String, id: Int) { = name = id


var empObj1 = Box(Employee(name: "Deepak", id: 001))
var empObj2 = empObj1

print(empObj1.value) // Employee(name: "Deepak", id: 1)
print(empObj2.value) // Employee(name: "Deepak", id: 1)

printAddress(address: &empObj1.value) //0x16b39ade8
printAddress(address: &empObj2.value) //0x16b39ade8 = "Dinesh"
print(empObj2.value) // Employee(name: "Dinesh", id: 1)
printAddress(address: &empObj2.value) // 0x16b39ade8

In the above code, the Box struct has a private reference type Ref that holds the actual value. The value property of the Box struct is implemented using a computed property. When the value is set, the code checks if the ref instance is uniquely referenced using the isKnownUniquelyReferenced function. If the instance is not uniquely referenced, a new instance Ref is created with the new value and assigned to ref. If the instance is uniquely referenced, the value is simply set on the existing Ref instance.

This example showcases how Copy-On-Write enables efficient memory sharing and mutation, ensuring that copies are created only when necessary, reducing memory overhead, and improving performance.

Final Words:
Copy-On-Write is a powerful memory management technique in Swift that allows for the efficient sharing and mutation of data. By deferring the creation of copies until necessary, it optimizes memory consumption and performance. Understanding and utilizing Copy-On-Write can significantly enhance the efficiency of your Swift code.

By leveraging value types and employing techniques like checking for unique references, you can implement Copy-On-Write in your own data structures. This ensures that your code utilizes memory effectively and performs efficiently, especially when dealing with large data sets.

Remember to consider the specific requirements of your application when deciding whether to employ Copy-On-Write. It is especially useful when dealing with large, mutable data structures, but may not always be necessary for smaller data sets or cases where mutation is infrequent.

By utilizing Copy-On-Write, you can strike a balance between memory efficiency and performance, resulting in more efficient and optimized Swift code.

Happy Coding!