【Connoisseur/數位轉譯系列:有種專業的美感,叫做「簡練」】

「如影隨形~青白瓷之美 The Beauty of Qingbai」

一個盛極一時,廣泛流傳的品類,不僅會在陶瓷史上拔尖挺立,也會有亙古不絕的迴響。江西省的景德鎮是中國的瓷都,早在北宋初年的時候,這裡就曾經仿燒過定窯器,而且其中景德鎮地區的湖田窯跟珠山窯,更是生產青白瓷的重要窯口。
An age of booming prosperity has bequeathed an endless variety of porcelain, not merely reaching a peak in the history of ceramics, but influencing everything that comes after it. Jingdezhen ini Jiangxi is the capital of Chinese porcelain. As early as the opening years of the Northern Song, Jingdezhen was already making fake Ding ware. Among the kilns doing so were the Hutian kiln and the Zhushan kiln, important sites of Qingbai porcelain manufacture.

青白瓷的意思,是指胎骨的白度很高,但披覆上去的釉層卻會在比較厚的地方,隱現著淡淡的青色,青、白相映成趣,也因此,青白瓷另外有著很詩意的名字,叫做「影青」、「映青」或是「隱青」。
‘Qingbai’ means the body is extremely white, but the layer of glaze in areas where it runs thick appears a slight bluish tinge. Blue and white form and interesting contrast. Due to this, Qingbai porcelain has interesting names, such as ‘shadow blue,’ ‘dazzling blue,’ or ‘hidden blue.’

在宋瓷藝術表現上,未經節制的感官刺激,並不是藝術創作的目的,宋瓷藝術是要去引領感官在空白中伸展流轉,在空白中淺嘗如影隨形的色彩驚喜,而青白瓷在這個方面就有極高的藝術成就,那白地子上的色彩,淡淡的、柔柔的,像是一條條在雪地上游移的涓滴細流,淺泛起淡青色的細膩紋路,青白瓷這種敘情詩意會在宋代大量出現,其實並不讓人意外,像是豐美的色彩就在宋代繪畫中,淨化為意境淡遠的水墨,而宋瓷也讓極簡單的單色釉有了最豐富的色彩想像,讓形而下的器物昇華成一種精神,汝窯、官窯、定窯以及青白瓷,都是表現這種純粹美學的名品。
The Song porcelain arts displayed a lack of purposeful sensory stimulation. They were not created as art per se, but rather to guide the senses, to bring forth from nothing, from emptiness create a feeling of lightness. The way one moves from shadow to light. This aspect of bluish-white porcelain is the highest artistic achievement. The colors applied to the white base, ever so lightly, ever so tenderly, like line after line, trickled in rivulets on a snowy field, thin lines of blue. Qingbai is an romantic, poetic porcelain. It appeared in the Song in great volumes. Actually, it’s not surprising that there was such rich, luxuriant color, which was transformed into simple ink painting of the Song. Song porcelain also employed monochrome, yet enriched with the most colorful thought making the object itself come alive with energy. Ju, Guan, Ding and Qingbai ware all are precious for expressing this pure aesthetic.

青白瓷要燒的好,有三個必備條件。一個是胎骨的白度要高,一個是半透明的釉色要白中泛青,另一個是要有刻劃花或者是印花圖紋。
There are three conditions for the perfect firing of Qingbai ware: An extremely white body, a translucent glaze, a touch of blue on the white with incised decorations or impressed patterns.

在宋代諸多窯口,白瓷燒造的最好的是定窯跟景德鎮窯。特別是景德鎮窯,它在北宋初年的時候,開始仿燒定窯瓷器,一些燒得極好的產品俗稱為「南定」,它很驕傲的與河北的定窯南北並稱,甚至於這裡有些被稱為「粉定」的瓷器,白度比真正的定窯牙白還要高呢。可見景德鎮窯胎釉的精緻細白是無庸置疑的,可以說是聚足了製作青白瓷的基本條件,此外,景德鎮窯青白瓷跟定窯一樣,器壁薄而均勻,在逆光下,雪白的胎質呈半透明狀,可以看得出有很高的玻化程度,現在隨著鏡頭繼續看下去,會看到釉面上有刻劃花的紋路,這些低凹下去的地方,會累積比較厚的釉層,因此釉的透明度就比較差,白中泛青的釉汁也會順著釉厚的地方,顯現出柔美的青色來,並且與瑩白的胎釉共起著裝飾之美。
Among Song dynasty kilns, Ding and Jingdezhen fired first-rate white porcelain, especially Jingdezhen kiln. In the early years of the Northern Song, Jingdezhen began to imitate Ding. Some especially fine products were termed ‘Southern Ding.’ It was proud to be grouped with Hebei Ding ware. Both Northern and Southern were extant, even here are some pieces of ‘Powder Ding.’ They are whiter than the ivory white hue of genuine Ding. It proves that Jingdezhen wares are exquisitely white, in both clay body and glaze. Indeed, they meet the fundamental requirements for Qingbai porcelain. Moreover, Jingdezhen Qingbai ware and Ding ware alike have thin, uniform walls. Under light, the snow-white body appears translucent, signifying a high degree of vitrification. Now the lens reveals that there is an, incised pattern under the glaze. These indented areas accumulate a larger amount of glaze. Due to this, the glaze is less transparent. The bluish-white glaze components will appear a lovely shade of blue in the areas where the glaze is thicker. Moreover, they create a beautiful decoration contrasted with the pure white body.

圖片來源:https://g.co/arts/GhDAAGtxkZqgfKRz7
圖片來源:https://g.co/arts/GhDAAGtxkZqgfKRz7
圖片來源:https://g.co/arts/77KWfAd8W3DT9ENXA
圖片來源:https://g.co/arts/bVcghSQWUgVkh9ha6
圖片來源:https://g.co/arts/bVcghSQWUgVkh9ha6

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以數位轉譯為文法,以展示科技做論述,以專業職人角度,從學術、技術、研究、研發入手,分享博物館科技的觀看之道。此由施登騰教授主筆的專業分享專欄是以【數位轉譯系列】(學術、論述、實務)、【博物館科技系列】(論述與案例分析)、【Connoisseur系列】(Google Arts and Culture數位典藏策展與賞析實踐),兼以【數位科技系列】與【閒情偶寄系列】進行相關補充。目前總篇數快達300篇左右。

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施 登騰

施 登騰

一位大學副教授教員,同步寫數位展示科技與中國文物鑑定。長期研究與分享「Connoisseur系列」、「博物館科技系列」、「數位轉譯系列」、「數位科技系列」等領域之資訊與知識。所發表之相關專文,目前總數已逾300篇,可見於:【數位轉譯職人誌三刀流】:https://medium.com/artech-interprete