In Post-Quantum Crypto, What Is ℤ[X]/(X^n+1)?

In traditional public key encryption, the strength of the methods is either based on prime number factorization (RSA), discrete logarithms (ElGamal) or elliptic curves (ECC). Unfortunately, the security of each of these methods will be significantly reduced in an era of quantum computers. Thus one of the methods proposed to replace them is with lattice cryptography, and especially with Ring LWE (Learning With…

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