What is Arduino?

Aviraj Sharma
Jul 10, 2020 · 6 min read

Arduino is an open-source hardware and software company, project and user community that designs and manufactures single-board micro-controllers and micro-controller kits for building digital devices. Its products are licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL) or the GNU General Public License (GPL), permitting the manufacture of Arduino boards and software distribution by anyone. Arduino boards are available commercially in preassembled form.

Arduino board designs use a variety of microprocessors and controllers. The boards are equipped with sets of digital and analog input/output (I/O) pins that may be interfaced with various expansion boards (‘shields’) or breadboards (For prototyping) and other circuits. The boards feature serial communications interfaces, including Universal Serial Bus (USB) on some models, which are also used for loading programs from personal computers. The microcontrollers can be programmed using C and C++ programming languages. In addition to using traditional compiler toolchains, the Arduino project provides an integrated development environment (IDE) based on C++.

The Arduino project started in 2005 as a program for students at the Interaction Design Institute Ivrea in Ivrea, Italy, aiming to provide a low-cost and easy way for novices and professionals to create devices that interact with their environment using sensors and actuators. Common examples of such devices intended for beginner hobbyists include simple robots, thermostats and motion detectors.1. Arduino provides boards that come with microprocessors and give us the ability to compute complex algorithms and logic separately from our environment. (computer environment) 2. This feature is good for isolated prototyping. 3. Arduino processor boards can be used for project specific programming. 4. These microprocessors are used in drones, robotics, AI, open CV, etc.

Arduino also provides boards equipped with “micro-controllers”. Micro-controllers have the ability to control (send and receive data) from sensors or other equipment. Arduino controllers are widely used in drone prototyping and can be found in your car’s ECU.

Fun Fact : Boston Robotics was the first company to use a computer cluster in their robots.

The original Arduino hardware was produced by the Italian company Smart Projects. Some Arduino-branded boards have been designed by the American companies SparkFun Electronics and Adafruit Industries. As of 2016, 17 versions of the Arduino hardware have been commercially produced.

  • Origin Arduino boards and the Arduino IDE is widely used for prototyping purposes. While PLCs are the go-to for the Industrial Industry, that doesn’t mean that an Arduino can’t be useful for the Industrial industry. One task that Arduino is great for is collecting data. Current Industrial Use 2
  • Intelligent Transportation System In City Bus Shelter © GPL3+ A smart bus shelter project integrated with LCD displays(schedule&details of buses, routes), piezoelectricity, and crystals using IoT Tech and Arduino™. 2. ECU controllers in most of the vehicles.
  • Technologies Using Arduino is to investigate some of the ways that bus shelters can be improved with the use of IoT, to provide useful information to the public. A small scale prototype focusing on smart advertising in bus shelters is modeled and evaluated.
  • The proposed solution is believed to provide insight on one way that create value for businesses which often use bus shelters to advertise their products or services.


User perspective: The user is the public transport commuter or a pedestrian who interacts with the smart bus shelter almost every day. Relevant information about the city can be of value to the user in terms of saving costs. From the user perspective, another key aspect that comes into play is the users’ experience in a bus shelter while he/she is waiting for the bus.

Market Potential and Competitive Advantages: The stakeholders are the public transport providers, businesses and institutions that rely on smart bus shelters to convey their information to the commuters. Public transport providers consider services that convey traffic information such as a real time update of the bus position or the estimated time of arrival of the bus at the bus shelter. Businesses and institutions on the other hand invest in public announcements of events, or advertisement of local sales or offers. The focus of our research is on the business side and how the local businesses, institutions or outdoor media companies communicate information and connect to the commuters of different areas.

Stakeholder perspective: The smart bus shelter incorporates key functionalities and characteristics such as: Connectivity, interaction, digital maps, digital information display etc. In typical cases, connectivity is achieved using a 3G modem router that connects to the local mobile service provider. This allows the system to connect to the public transport web server as well as the cloud, whereby further information about the city is retrieved. Smart bus shelters deployed in Paris, include functionality that displays information and the happenings across the city, aimed to be a tour guide for tourists and other interested individuals. Bus Shelter 4 Intelligent Transportation System In City Bus Shelter © G PL3+.

The Arduino Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is a cross-platform application (for Windows, macOS, Linux) that is written in functions from C and C++. It is used to write and upload programs to Arduino compatible boards, but also, with the help of 3rd party cores, other vendor development boards.The source code for the IDE is released under the GNU General Public License, version

Arduino IDE:

The Arduino IDE supports the languages C and C++ using special rules of code structuring. The Arduino IDE supplies a software library from the Wiring project, which provides many common input and output procedures.

User-written code only requires two basic functions, for starting the sketch and the main program loop, that are compiled and linked with a program stub main() into an executable cyclic executive program with the GNU toolchain, also included with the IDE distribution.

The Arduino IDE employs the program avrdude to convert the executable code into a text file in hexadecimal encoding that is loaded into the Arduino board by a loader program in the board’s firmware.

By default, avrdude is used as the uploading tool to flash the user code onto official Arduino boards.Arduino With Python Arduino is an open-source platform composed of hardware and software that allows for the rapid development of interactive electronics projects.

The emergence of Arduino drew the attention of professionals from many different industries, contributing to the start of the Maker Movement.Python can be integrated with arduino using its native IDE. Arduino comes with vast compatibility and many of its libraries are using python. The Arduino-Python3 Command API is a lightweight Python library for communicating with Arduino microcontroller boards from a connected computer using standard serial IO, either over a physical wire or wirelessly. It is written using a custom protocol, similar to Firmata.

Companies using Arduino:

Snowplow is an enterprise-grade event data collection platform. Snowplow. Arduino inc uses its boards in many of its commercial products. Arduino INC Dronesmith makes development tools that enable technology providers to build drone applications through easy-to-use APIs. Dronesmith Amitum is an IT industry, which collects and manages data. Uses Arduino as a feed device.


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