Published in


An overview of hard carbon as anode materials for sodium-ion batteries

  • Sodium-ion (Na-ion) batteries have attracted significant interest from a wide spectrum of commercial applications, including home storage, uninterrupted power supply, and low-speed electric vehicles (EVs) ranging from electric three-wheelers to trucks.
  • The lower cost, improved sustainability, ability to be completely discharged to zero volts during transportation and drop-in nature of manufacturing (fully compatible with existing Li-ion cell manufacturing lines) are among the key features that make this chemistry an excellent choice to fill the longstanding gap between lead-acid and Li-ion batteries on the cost/performance curve [1].
  • Establishing a sustainable supply chain of Na-ion battery materials is of paramount importance given recent industry developments, such as the acquisition of Faradion by Reliance New Energy Solar Ltd for an enterprise value of £100 million plus £25 million of growth capital [2], as well as CATL’s plans to enter production by 2023 [3].


Figure 1. Industrialization of Na-ion batteries.
  • 1000 cycles at 1C in 1.0–4.2 voltage window
  • 3000 cycles at 1C in 1.0–4.0 voltage window (historic 2020 data; for more details refer to the publicly available supplementary information of reference [1])

Anode materials: opportunities, challenges and outlook

Figure 2. Storage sites of hard carbon.





Get the Medium app

A button that says 'Download on the App Store', and if clicked it will lead you to the iOS App store
A button that says 'Get it on, Google Play', and if clicked it will lead you to the Google Play store