Coalition As A Solution to Violence

Freddie Gray’s recent death on April 19th, 2015 shows how urgent the call for coalition truly is. As rumors unfold and the mysterious story of this 25-year old Black man’s arrest and death becomes more public, it is clear that injustice was exercised. As people of color all over America mourn, a rage has surfaced, that has manifested its way in the form of perhaps necessary violence. The death of Gray highlights obtrusively the quotidian struggle of the Black body in America. How many more Black bodies must be violated before people of all races and ethnicities recognize their role in liberation?

In lieu of all that is happening, the Black Lives Matter movement, formed by Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tomet, is relentlessly calling for alliance, and coalition; the union into one body, an alliance between persons, factions and state. As seen through the Black Power Movement and the mimicking Yellow Power movement of the 1960–1970’s when implemented affectively, coalition is vital to attaining change.

The Black Power movement was formed under the premise that Black people needed to organize themselves politically and socially, to speak from a position of power. Through the eyes of Asian Americans watching the formation of the Black Power movement, the idea of Yellow power was adopted to ultimately create an Asian –American nationalism.[1] Because of their mutually experienced struggles with colonialism and American assimilation, Asian American nationalists began to follow the actions of the Black Power Movement. A space of great knowledge was created — through which revolutionary change could be made.[2]

This space of knowledge was due to affective coalition, which came about through the consulting of 4 ideals. In the early 1970’s Stokely Carmichael in Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America provides a template through which to ensure valid and effective coalition.[3] He explained the parties must recognize their respective self — interests, have mutual beliefs that each party stands to benefit from allying with others, and accept the fact that each party has it’s own independent base of power. Lastly, the coalition must jointly identify specific and tangible goals.

Carmichael and Hamilton provide the perspective and knowledge of a hetero-Black male, but one must also consider the lens of a female. Yuri Kochiyama a first generation American Japanese woman was present in Harlem during the rise of the Black Power Movement.[4] She helped strengthen the bond of coalition between the two communities. She invested not only her own time, but that of her children’s by attending many boycotts, and joining many different organizations such as the W.E.B Du Bois Foundation and Malcolm X Commemoration Committee. She also, with her children attended the Freedom School of Harlem, to educate herself and her children on the history of African Americans. [5]

One of her largest accomplishments was being involved in the legal trials of Black Power Movement leaders. By reaching out to imprisoned black activists Kochiyama showed her dedication to the cause. As well she allowed her Asian-American community the opportunity to see how their involvement was crucial.

By being present at protests, meetings, etc, Kochiyama encourage coalition between Asian and Black populations in the area.[6] As well she built a sense of coalition in her children from a young age. She made it her goal to intersect the hetero-normative perspective that the world was feeding her children. From the time they were little, they were pushed to examine the world around them.

While Kochiyama could only empathize to a certain degree with the struggle of the Black bodies in America, she recognized that she too benefitted from their liberation. It is just this kind of recognition and support that is vital in the present day movements.

As Alicia Garza herself stated during an interview: “We know that our struggles are intricately connected and we need each other to get free. The argument that we’re making, however, is that black lives are central to everybody’s freedom”

Bibliography:

3. Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. United States: Vitange, 1967. Print.

5. Ho, Fred Wei-han., and Bill Mullen. Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans. Durham: Duke UP, 2008. Print.

  1. Kelly, Robin D. G., and Betsy Esch. Black like Mao: Red China and Black Liberation. New York: Columbia U, 1999. Print.

2. Ladner, Joyce. 1967. What “Black Power” Means to Negroes inMississippi. Transaction (November): 7–15.

4. Shah, Sonia. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End, 1997. Print.

6. Watkins, Rychetta. Black Power, Yellow Power, and the Making of Revolutionary Identities. Jackson: U of Mississippi, 2012. Print.


[1] Kelly, Robin D. G., and Betsy Esch. Black like Mao: Red China and Black Liberation. New York: Columbia U, 1999. Pr[2] Ladner, Joyce. 1967. What “Black Power” Means to Negroes inMississippi. Transaction (November): 7–15.

[3] Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. United States: Vitange, 1967. Print.

[4] Shah, Sonia. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End, 1997. Print.

[5] Ho, Fred Wei-han., and Bill Mullen. Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans. Durham: Duke UP, 2008. Print.

[6] Watkins, Rychetta. Black Power, Yellow Power, and the Making of Revolutionary Identities. Jackson: U of Mississippi, 2012. Print.

Coalition As A Solution to Violence

Freddie Gray’s recent death on April 19th, 2015 shows how urgent the call for coalition truly is. As rumors unfold and the mysterious story of this 25-year old Black man’s arrest and death becomes more public, it is clear that injustice was exercised. As people of color all over America mourn, a rage has surfaced, that has manifested its way in the form of perhaps necessary violence. The death of Gray highlights obtrusively the quotidian struggle of the Black body in America. How many more Black bodies must be violated before people of all races and ethnicities recognize their role in liberation?

In lieu of all that is happening, the Black Lives Matter movement, formed by Alicia Garza, Patrisse Cullors, and Opal Tomet, is relentlessly calling for alliance, and coalition; the union into one body, an alliance between persons, factions and state. As seen through the Black Power Movement and the mimicking Yellow Power movement of the 1960–1970’s when implemented affectively, coalition is vital to attaining change.

The Black Power movement was formed under the premise that Black people needed to organize themselves politically and socially, to speak from a position of power. Through the eyes of Asian Americans watching the formation of the Black Power movement, the idea of Yellow power was adopted to ultimately create an Asian –American nationalism.[1] Because of their mutually experienced struggles with colonialism and American assimilation, Asian American nationalists began to follow the actions of the Black Power Movement. A space of great knowledge was created — through which revolutionary change could be made.[2]

This space of knowledge was due to affective coalition, which came about through the consulting of 4 ideals. In the early 1970’s Stokely Carmichael in Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America provides a template through which to ensure valid and effective coalition.[3] He explained the parties must recognize their respective self — interests, have mutual beliefs that each party stands to benefit from allying with others, and accept the fact that each party has it’s own independent base of power. Lastly, the coalition must jointly identify specific and tangible goals.

Carmichael and Hamilton provide the perspective and knowledge of a hetero-Black male, but one must also consider the lens of a female. Yuri Kochiyama a first generation American Japanese woman was present in Harlem during the rise of the Black Power Movement.[4] She helped strengthen the bond of coalition between the two communities. She invested not only her own time, but that of her children’s by attending many boycotts, and joining many different organizations such as the W.E.B Du Bois Foundation and Malcolm X Commemoration Committee. She also, with her children attended the Freedom School of Harlem, to educate herself and her children on the history of African Americans. [5]

One of her largest accomplishments was being involved in the legal trials of Black Power Movement leaders. By reaching out to imprisoned black activists Kochiyama showed her dedication to the cause. As well she allowed her Asian-American community the opportunity to see how their involvement was crucial.

By being present at protests, meetings, etc, Kochiyama encourage coalition between Asian and Black populations in the area.[6] As well she built a sense of coalition in her children from a young age. She made it her goal to intersect the hetero-normative perspective that the world was feeding her children. From the time they were little, they were pushed to examine the world around them.

While Kochiyama could only empathize to a certain degree with the struggle of the Black bodies in America, she recognized that she too benefitted from their liberation. It is just this kind of recognition and support that is vital in the present day movements.

As Alicia Garza herself stated during an interview: “We know that our struggles are intricately connected and we need each other to get free. The argument that we’re making, however, is that black lives are central to everybody’s freedom”

Bibliography:

Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. United States: Vitange, 1967. Print.

Ho, Fred Wei-han., and Bill Mullen. Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans. Durham: Duke UP, 2008. Print.

Kelly, Robin D. G., and Betsy Esch. Black like Mao: Red China and Black Liberation. New York: Columbia U, 1999. Print.

Ladner, Joyce. 1967. What “Black Power” Means to Negroes in

Mississippi. Transaction (November): 7–15.

Shah, Sonia. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End, 1997. Print.

Watkins, Rychetta. Black Power, Yellow Power, and the Making of Revolutionary Identities. Jackson: U of Mississippi, 2012. Print.


[1] Kelly, Robin D. G., and Betsy Esch. Black like Mao: Red China and Black Liberation. New York: Columbia U, 1999. Print

[2] Ladner, Joyce. 1967. What “Black Power” Means to Negroes in

Mississippi. Transaction (November): 7–15.

[3] Carmichael, Stokely, and Charles Hamilton. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America. United States: Vitange, 1967. Print.

[4] Shah, Sonia. Dragon Ladies: Asian American Feminists Breathe Fire. Boston: South End, 1997. Print.

[5] Ho, Fred Wei-han., and Bill Mullen. Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans. Durham: Duke UP, 2008. Print.

[6] Watkins, Rychetta. Black Power, Yellow Power, and the Making of Revolutionary Identities. Jackson: U of Mississippi, 2012. Print.