How does the brain encode similarities?
The limitations of functional magnetic resonance imaging provide a clue.
We can appreciate that a cat is more similar to a dog than to a truck. The combined activity of millions of neurons in the brain somehow captures these everyday similarities, and this activity can be measured using imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI scanners are not particularly precise — they average together the responses of many thousands of neurons over several seconds, which provides a blurry snapshot of brain activity. Nevertheless, the pattern of activity measured when viewing a photograph of a cat is more similar to that seen when viewing a picture of a dog than a picture of a truck. This tells us a lot about how the brain codes information, as only certain coding methods would allow fMRI to capture these similarities given the technique’s limitations.
There are many different models that attempt to describe how the brain codes similarity relations. Some models use the principle of neural networks, in which neurons can be considered as arranged into interconnected layers. In such models, neurons transmit information from one layer to the next.
By investigating which models are consistent with fMRI’s ability to capture similarity relations, Olivia Guest and Bradley Love have found that certain neural network models are plausible accounts of how the brain represents and processes information. These models include the deep learning networks that contain many layers of neurons and are popularly used in artificial intelligence. Other modeling approaches do not account for the ability of fMRI to capture similarity relations.
As neural networks become deeper with more layers, they should be less readily understood using fMRI: as the number of layers increases, the representations of objects with similarities (for example, cats and dogs) become more unrelated. One question that requires further investigation is whether this finding explains why certain parts of the brain are more difficult to image.
To find out more
Read the eLife research paper on which this eLife digest is based: “What the success of brain imaging implies about the neural code” (January 19, 2017).