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Cartesi Network and CTSI

  • Convenience — developing and using a blockchain application is still an overwhelming task, involving a very difficult learning curve and consequently significantly reducing general interest in the technology;
  • Scalability — Blockchains need to perform as well as centralized technology in order to be able to compete with it.


  • Computation — How complex can the logic of a program be? This is analogous to the CPU power of a server;
  • Transactions — How many messages can we send and confirm into the system per unit of time? This is analogous to the bandwidth of the network;
  • Storage — How many terabytes of data can we store in our server?

Cartesi Side Chain

  • Powerful — Just as everyone expects their internet to have a good bandwidth, we need to have a good volume of transactions per second if we expect to see a viable alternative to centralized services;
  • Data Only — Since the Cartesi Core solves the problem of computational scalability on blockchains, we can focus on the problem of Data Availability now. As soon as transactions are available to all interested parties, processing them can be done essentially for free;
  • Local — Just like Ethereum’s Sharding proposition, we also believe that not everyone needs to store and transmit all transactions on the network. However, our Locality solution is flexible and decided by the users instead of fixed in the protocol;
  • Cost-effective — Transaction cost cannot hamper the use of decentralized applications. By combining several technologies together, we expect to bring the price down to the point that it no longer impedes adoption;
  • Proof of Stake — We cannot rely on Proof of Work for the security of our transaction solution as this brings major questions about its sustainability and security. Instead, we will implement a Proof of Stake consensus algorithm;
  • Garbage Collection — We don’t need to keep all processed transactions available forever. This would greatly limit the system, without bringing any real benefits. Note however that there is a big problem when we clean-up old data and make it unavailable: it becomes much harder for new users to join the network, since they cannot reconstruct the history from genesis. This problem is mitigated by our Data Availability Protocol solution that we will describe in a later article;
  • Embedding — There is no need for the Cartesi Chain to be a blockchain of its own, with all the complexity that this brings to its design. Cartesi is inherently a second layer solution and, as such, it can use the underlying blockchain for the heavy lifting of its protocol. This makes it very easy to solve complicated problems, such as the ordering of packages, timing attacks, randomization, elections, and so on.

The Cartesi Token

  • Staking — Since block generators will be selected in proportion to their stakes in the economy, there needs to be a way to query and lock everyone’s balance in the system.
  • Election of block producers — The miners will be selected to propose blocks in proportion to their token balance, so that the network is run by a pulverized community of stakeholders.
  • Slashing — Bad behavior is disincentivized by locking and potentially slashing the tokens of dishonest actors.
  • Transaction fees — Although we are designing our Side Chain to be orders of magnitude cheaper than the underlying main chain, users or DApp developers still need to pay for their transactions to be processed, transmitted and temporarily stored by others. These fees will be paid to Node Operators with the Cartesi Token.
  • Challenge computations — The Cartesi Token will also be important in order to challenge computation results posted on the blockchain. This will work as an exit mechanism that guarantees the correct execution of DApps and discourages bad behavior.



Cartesi’s application-specific optimistic rollup framework enables a blockchain stack robust enough for developers to build computationally intensive and previously impossible decentralized use cases.

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