Gamification, defined as “the use of design elements characteristic of games in non-game contexts” is widely used to foster user motivation in many different settings (such as education, health, sport, etc.). Gamification is generally used in a “one size fits all approach”, where all users interact with all game elements. However, recent studies show that users can be more or less receptive to different game elements, based on their personality or player profile. Consequently, recent work on tailored gamification tries to identify links between user types and motivating game elements. These findings are very heterogeneous due to different contexts, different typologies to characterize users, and different implementations of game elements.
Our work seeks to obtain findings that are more generalizable in order to identify the main factors that will support design choices when tailoring gamification to users’ profiles and provide designers with concrete recommendations for designing tailored gamification systems. For this purpose, we ran a crowdsourced study with 300 participants to identify the motivational impact of game elements. Our study differs from previous work in three ways:
- It is independent from a specific user activity and domain;
- It considers three user typologies; and
- It clearly distinguishes motivational strategies and their implementation using multiple different game elements.
Our results reveal that:
- Different implementations of the same motivational strategy have different impacts on motivation;
- Dominant user type is not sufficient to differentiate users according to their preferences for game elements;
- Hexad is the most appropriate user typology for tailored gamification; and
- The motivational impact of certain game elements varies with the user activity or the domain of gamified systems.
Contact author: Stuart Hallifax
CHI PLAY session:
Friday, 25 October 2019, 11:00–12:30
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