Choice Hacking
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Choice Hacking

3 Reasons Why JC Penny Failed

The psychological traps they fell into and how you can avoid them

Source: Sundry Photography —

Founded in 1902 by James Cash Penny, JC Penny was once the biggest retailer in the United States and the gold standard of American retail.

For nearly a hundred years, every town seemed to have a JC Penny. Almost everything people needed could be found on its shelves (or in its…




Writing at the intersection of psychology, science, business and design

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Jennifer Clinehens

Jennifer Clinehens

Behavior change strategist. Use science and psychology to improve design, CX, UX, marketing, habits — subscribe at

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