10 Interesting Facts on Open Science: Scientific Revolution.
The development in the number and scale of universities throughout the world, as well as the expansion of their research endeavors as a method of enhancing their reputations and attracting both students and sponsors, is driving demand in this lucrative academic publishing sector. Because publishing metrics have become the key indicator of academic achievement and the primary motivator for career development, they have become the primary gauge of academic performance and the primary incentive for career progress. The concept “publish or perish” has become norm many fields. As a result, the rate of scientific publishing has increased exponentially in recent decades, with output rates approaching 2.5 million per year by 2017. The proliferation of so-called “predatory” journals, which provide speedy publishing without peer review or considerable editorial control, is another result of this increase in demand for publication channels.To counter the current science climate, Open Science has emerged.
Open Science is a new approach to science that is centered on collaborative effort and new means of disseminating information via the use of digital technology and collaborative tools. Open Science is defined by the OECD as “making the major outputs of publicly financed research outcomes — papers and research data — publicly accessible in digital format with no or minimal restrictions,” but it is much more. Open Science entails extending openness principles across the whole research cycle, stimulating sharing and collaboration as early as feasible, and entails a fundamental shift in the way science and research are conducted.
Open Science is commonly characterized as an umbrella phrase that encompasses a number of initiatives aimed at removing barriers to sharing any type of output, resource, technique, or tool at any step of the research process. Open Science include open access to papers, open research data, open source software, open collaboration, open peer review, open notebooks, open educational materials, open monographs, citizen science, and research crowdfunding. Even while the attention is generally focused on two of these movements: Open Research Data and Open Access to scientific publications, notably in the library and information sphere.
Broadening access to scientific papers and data is at the core of open science, with the goal of putting research results in the hands of as many people as possible and spreading potential benefits as far as feasible:
● Open research encourages more precise verification of scientific findings. Scientific inquiry and discoveries may be accelerated for the benefit of society by merging science and information technology.
● Open science eliminates duplication in the collection, creation, transmission, and reuse of scientific information.
● In a time of constrained finances, open science boosts productivity.
● Because to open science, there is a lot of room for innovation and more consumer choice in public research.
● Citizens’ faith in science is bolstered through open science. Citizens with a higher level of involvement are more likely to participate actively in scientific investigations and data collecting.
Here are 10 Interesting Facts you might not heard about Open Science:
1. ‘Open Science’ is not a new notion in and of itself.
It is only recently that a consensus has been reached on the word and used widely use. In the past many additional words have been used to describe the evolution of scientific practice such as Science 2.0 and e-Science. However, as noted in the report of the European Commission’s 2014 public consultation on ‘Science 2.0: Science in Transition,’ stakeholders prefer the term ‘Open Science.’
2. The Directory of Open Access Publications (DOAJ), a community-based online directory started in 2003 in Sweden with 300 open access journals, has a list of open access journals in all subjects and languages. As of March 2018, there were almost 2,982,000 articles in over 11,100 open access journals from 124 countries.
The Budapest Declaration, among other powerful and principled initiatives, has played a significant role in promoting the growth of “open access” publishing that adheres to its principles:
“The free availability of scientific literature on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited.”
3. Open Science currently account for around 47 percent of all scientific publications.
The market share of open access journals has steadily risen. European Commission, a major science funder, launched “cOALITION S” in 2018, requesting that “all scholarly publications based on the research funded by public or private grants provided by national, regional and international research councils and funding bodies, must be published in Open Access Journals, on Open Access Platforms, or made immediately available through Open Access Repositories without embargo” beginning in 2021.
4. More than two-thirds of peer-reviewed open access journals have no costs, whereas 75% of traditional, non-open access journals have both author-side and reader-side subscription fees.
The open access journal business model has been quickly changing. The so-called “gold” model is the one that deviates the least from the conventional. The journal price is simply moved from a downstream “reader pays” subscription cost to an upstream “author pays” article processing charge in this scenario. It is the preferred path for commercial publishers’ open access offers, although it is at least as, if not more, financially demanding than its predecessor. The so-called “green” form of open access publishing, which is very much a child of the digital revolution, is the second main style of open access publication. Articles are submitted to an open access repository rather than being published to open access journals.
5. Due to COVID-19 Pandemic, major publications resorted to Open Science
“Thousands of scientific studies about the coronavirus are locked behind subscription paywalls, blocking scientists from getting access to the research needed to discover antiviral treatments and a vaccine to stop the virus,” according to a petition with 2,000 signatures on March 3, 2020. Corporate publishers have responded with a positive but restricted response, allowing open access for a three-month term.
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