Foods That Heal

A Collective Cookbook from CoFED’s Network

Why a collective cookbook and why now?

Sharing food is healing and powerful. Food not only sustains us, but brings us together and represents our identities, cultures, and sense of place. Food is intrinsically tied to our collective experience as people.

“Foods That Heal” celebrates and shares the critical role of food.

Food is at the center of CoFED’s work. CoFED (The Cooperative Food Empowerment Directive) is a training program and national alliance for students interested in starting and scaling campus-based food cooperatives. The issue of food quality and insecurity on college campuses is widespread and systemic. The corporate consolidation of the U.S. food system, upheld by college institutions, perpetuates injustices in our food system, creating ecological and economic crises that effects us all, and impacting communities of color and low-income communities first and worst.

CoFED’s work builds skills and supports a new generation of food justice leaders while also creating ready markets for community-owned food, like worker-­owned restaurants, cooperative grocery stores, and multi-­farm CSAs.

A meal shared by Down to Earth Food Co-op, a dining club in Newark, DE.


Beet Burgers
Submitted by Taylor Stack of the Rad Dish Cafe Co-op

Creamy Peanut Kale Salad
Submitted by Keith Tucker of Hip Hop is Green

“Tasty Bread” aka Almond Poppyseed
Submitted by Joanie Gutermuth

Vegetable Coconut Curry
Submitted by Rachel Vernon (Board member of CoFED)

Family Gumbo
Submitted by Mother-Daughter Duo, Sally & Anna Isaacs (Anna is the Co-director of CoFED)

Building Co-op Movement Power Nuggets
Submitted by Misty Dawn Spicer-Sitzes of Toolbox for Education and Social Action

Shiitake and Chanterelle Pizzas with Goat Cheese
Submitted by Diane Gasaway of the Northwest Coop Development Center

Sweet Potato Biscuits
Submitted by Cooperative Youth Council

Spinach Garden Salad
Submitted by Jason Rodney of Cooperative Youth Council

Ukranian Borscht
Submitted by John McNamara of the Northwest Coop Development Center

5-ingredient Burmese Beeh Hin-yaye (red lentil soup)
Submitted by Hnin W. Hnin, Co-director of CoFED

Beet Burgers was submitted by Taylor Stack of Rad Dish Food Co-op
The Rad Dish Co-op Crew at Temple University

The beet burger is meaningful to me because of all the inspiration that went into its creation. Lauren, another co-op member, and I were working on an organic farm in Costa Rica when we first made the beet burger patty. As soon as we tasted it, we knew it had to be on the menu and that it would go great with our signature coleslaw. A founding Rad Dish member, Peter, created the coleslaw for our very first menu and we bring it back anytime we can. The beet burger is also meaningful to the co-op because it, like many of our menu items, helps show that the vegan and vegetarian lifestyle can be delicious and fulfilling! Note: This recipe yields 6 burgers.

Burger ingredients:
1 ½ packed cup of grated beet 
1 tsp. of minced garlic 
½ packed cup of chopped onion 
1 tsp. salt 
2/3 packed cup of grated carrot 
1 tsp. all spice 2 tbsp. ground chia seeds 
3 tbsp. water 
1 cup of flour 
1 cup lentils
Directions for burgers:
1. Grate and combine the beets and carrots (approx. 1.5 large beet and 1.5 large carrot) 
2. Chop and add ½ cup of chopped onion 
3. Add garlic 
4. Combine ground chia seeds and water and stir until gel forms 
5. Add the gel and lentils to the mixture 
6. Mix the spices, salt and flour together and stir into the mixture, little by little 
7. The mixture will be sticky but should be able to form balls 
8. Measure out ½ cup portions and roll into balls 
9. Form the balls into patties 
10. Heat skillet with oil and fry patties until both sides are firm and a deep purple (if using golden beets cook until both sides are brown)
Sauce ingredients: 
1/2 cup vegan mayo 
1/4 tbsp. lime juice 
1/8 tsp. salt 
1/2 tbsp. hot sauce
Slaw ingredients: 
1/2 cups apple cider vinegar 
1/3 cups brown sugar 
2 tbsp. lemon juice 
2 tbsp. water 
1/2 tbsp. salt 
1/4 tsp. chili powder 
1/4 tsp. allspice 
1/4 tsp. garlic powder 
1/8 tsp. of mustard powder 
1/8 tsp. of cinnamon 
1/8 tsp. coriander 
1/8 tsp. salt 
1/2 cup of shredded carrot 
1/4 cup diced red onions 
1/4 cabbage head 
3/4 cups of shredded apples
Directions for slaw & sauce:
1. Dissolve salt, brown sugar, lemon juice, and water in apple cider vinegar. 
2. Cut apples into thin strips or shred in food processor (until chopped into small pieces) 
3. Shred carrots on grater 
4. Dice onions into small pieces 
5. Chop cabbage into thin coleslaw style strips or shred in food processor 
6. Mix the apples, carrots, onions, and cabbage together in bowl 
7. Coat with vinegar mixture 
8. Refrigerate until needed

Creamy Peanut Kale Salad was submitted by Keith Tucker of Hip Hop is Green

I make this salad for my wife; she loves it. There are many reasons why this salad and other foods are meaningful to me. Food is our connection to the life force of the universe and food not only nourishes the body, it nourishes the whole “being” and is a window into our deepest beliefs about ourselves and the world around us. Also, food historically has drawn us together, connecting individuals, families, communities, and the world.

Ingredients for salad:
Purple kale, dark green kale, zucchini & squash, avocado, cilantro, mushrooms, red onion, orange and yellow pepper, parsley, pepper, Italian seasoning, garlic salt, hemp seeds, cashew or Brazil nuts crumbled and fresh ground pepper.
Ingredients for marinade:
1 1/2 table spoon of Bragg’s Apple cider vinegar 
1/2 table spoon lemon juice
1 squirt hemp oil 
Pinch of pink sea salt
Combine all salad ingredients in a 1 gallon sandwich bag. 
Mash avocado into salad. 
Make marinade separately, and then massage salad until it becomes soft, but not too soft, just right.
Directions for peanut sauce:
I used left over peanut sauce I had from the Thai restaurant. It worked perfect. They have many kinds at the store or you can make your own. Then take out enough for one serving and place that in a bowl. Now you are ready to add peanut sauce. Fold it into your salad to get a perfect creamy kale peanut salad.

“Tasty Bread” aka Almond Poppyseed was submitted by From Joanie Gutermuth

I love to bake for family and friends. I baked this bread when my daughter and grandson visited. My daughter offered a bite to my young grandson and told him it was “tasty.” Since then he has always asked me to make him “Tasty Bread.” When I visit their house, I always bring a loaf in my bag and I always have it ready when he visits.

2 1/4 C. sugar 
1 C. + 2 tbsp. oil 
3 eggs 
1 1/2 tsp. lemon juice
1 1/2 tsp. almond extract 
1 1/2 tsp. vanilla 
3 C. flour 
1 1/2 tsp. baking powder 
1 tsp. salt 
1 1/2 C. milk 
3 tbsp. poppy seeds
Line two greased loaf pans on the bottom with parchment. 
Spray the parchment with cooking spray. 
Mix sugar, oil, eggs, seeds, juice and extracts. 
Blend well. 
Combine dry ingredients and add to sugar mixture alternately with milk, mixing till just moistened. 
Pour just prepared pans and bake in 350 degree oven for 50–60 minutes or till a toothpick in center comes out clean. 
Cool in pan for ten minutes.

A shared meal after the 2016 Oakland Running Festival with #TeamCoFED, the amazing people who run and fundraise for CoFED’s Summer Co-op Academy.

Vegetable Coconut Curry was submitted by Rachel Vernon (Board member of CoFED)

Vegetable Coconut Curry is our favorite ‘having company dish.’ It’s delicious and easy to make :) And its always a hit!

2 tbsp olive oil 
2 tsp mustard seed 
1 head of cauliflower 
1 medium and 1 small sweet potato 
Bag of frozen peas 
Can of coconut milk 
One onion or a half, depending on preference 
Add to taste: Turmeric, Curry powder, Salt, Cayenne/Chili powder
Place olive oil in pan with mustard seeds. 
Put on a medium to high temperature, and wait until mustard seeds pop. 
Add onion and spices, frying up the onions and spices. 
After a few minutes when the onions are fragrant, add the sweet potatoes, turn on high heat and brown them on each side covered.

Family Gumbo was submitted by Sally & Anna Isaacs (mother & daughter)

One of the first times my parents came out to visit me on the West Coast, my mama cooked a big pot of gumbo for my friends and we had a big party. It’s a special dish that we have a lot of love and pride for and like to share with others. It’s cooked in a big stew pot and served over white rice. A gumbo pot is a special piece of equipment in my mama’s and my own kitchen. The roux, a cooked flour and fat mixture, is the base of the gumbo. For us, it’s important to get the roux dark, like chocolate, without burning it. The roux is always a source of a lot of concern and care. My mama always says “Watch the roux! Whisk the roux! Don’t let the roux burn!” And of course, you can’t forget the Tabasco. Ultimately, this recipe always reminds me of my mama. She lives far away but I love her so much and am proud to cook her recipe.

Note this is creole traditional cuisine, made with the ingredients available to the generations of people that have lived in close relation with the Gulf Coast bioregion, where seafood is a large source of nutrition as well as culture. Traditionally our family cooks this dish with seafood, but if you don’t eat animal products, you can leave it out or try another traditional dish, Gumbo Z’Herbes, which is made with collard, mustard, turnip, spinach, watercress, and beet greens, and whose history is rooted in the Catholic observance of Lent.
Equal parts canola oil & flour
2–3 large onions, chopped
1–2 large green pepper, chopped
4–5+ stalks of celery, chopped
6 large cloves of garlic, minced
1 large bag frozen okra
2 8-oz. can pureed tomatoes
Broth (vegetable, seafood or chicken) — at least 2 quarts
3 large bay leaves
1 T+ Worcestershire sauce
3 T creole seasoning
Thyme (start with 1 teaspoon) — can add more later if needed
Tabasco sauce (start with a little < 1 T) — can add more later if needed)
1 cup parsley — chopped
1 bunch green onions — chopped
*Traditionally would add: 3 pounds of shrimp and crab (whole crabs or picked meat)
This recipe makes a big pot; the pot I use is 10” tall & 10” wide.
Gumbo is always better the longer it sits. Make it early in the day and let it sit (without the meat in it) all day long. It’s even better if you make it a day ahead of serving.
Chop onions, celery, green peppers and garlic, and set aside.
Make a roux by mixing and browning equal parts oil and flour. For my size gumbo pot, I use about 1/3–1/2 cup of each. You need a very heavy skillet to make a roux because you cook the roux on very high heat. You also CAN NOT do anything else while making a roux, because you have to continually stir it so it doesn’t burn. I make my roux and sauté my vegetables in a cast iron skillet and then transfer to my gumbo pot. Brown the roux until it is a very dark chocolate color. Since you are cooking on very high heat, this really doesn’t take that long, and once it starts to brown, it can quickly burn.
Once the roux is dark brown, turn down the heat to medium low and add onions, celery, green peppers and garlic. Sweat the veggies, don’t brown them.
Add frozen okra. Stir so okra is coated in the roux. Add pureed tomatoes, broth, bay leaves, parsley, Worcestershire sauce, creole seasoning, & Tabasco sauce. Bring to a boil; lower heat to low and simmer about an hour. You may have to add a small amount of water. If using whole crabs, add after about 30 minutes of simmering.
Now, here is the trick of great gumbo: before you add your seafood, the gumbo mixture should already taste delicious. Taste and adjust seasonings at this point before adding shrimp or crab meat. Also if too thick, add more water. Once it is seasoned and delicious, add the peeled shrimp, crab meat and green onions. Cook until shrimp is just barely cooked and then turn the heat off.
A festive meal at CoFED’s Summer Co-op Academy
Building the Co-op Movement Power Nuggets was submitted by Misty Dawn Spicer-Sitzes of Toolbox for Education and Social Action.

I love to make this food with folx on the go. There’s no doubt that we’re in a sugar addicted culture, and often faced with choosing dense, sugary foods when we need a little, quick energy. These delightful plant-based nuggets are a great way to appease the sweeter side of your palate, and are also loaded with potassium, magnesium and other vitamins that support healthy digestion, decrease joint pain, blood pressure, and increase heart-heath.

They’re fantastic for tiding folx over when a meeting runs longer than expected, or even when served as a tasty dessert at the next community dinner, and to make it more cost-effective (and tie in the recipe title), I prefer to shop in bulk at the local grocery co-op!

For Processor or Vitamix: 
2 cups pitted dates (softer/fresher the better) 
¼ cup cacao powder 
¼ cup unrefined coconut oil 
¾ cup gluten free oats 
2 tablespoons maple syrup or agave 
1 tbs raw nut butter of your choice (optional)
For folding in by hand: 
¼ cup coconut flakes 
¼ cup sesame or hemp seeds 
¼ cup sugar free dried fruit of your choice — I like goji berry & I even like dried ginger sometimes! 
¼ cup chopped raw nuts of your choice — I love macadamia or cashews 
Warm water (as needed)
Topping: ¼ cup coconut flakes, set aside. 
Optional: Hemp seeds, cacao powder, crushed raw nuts, sea salt, cayenne, cinnamon, you name it!
Place dates, coconut oil, half of the oats, cacao powder, maple syrup or agave and nut butter in a food processor or Vitamix and process until smooth. 
Scoop the creamed mixture into your bowl, and fold in the other ingredients. 
If the mixture is soggy then slowly add more oats, if the mixture is too dry slowly add a small bit of warm water. 
Shape nuggets between 4 to 6 cm in diameter and roll them in the ½ cup of coconut you have set aside (you can also add optional goodies here).
Place evenly on a baking sheet or cutting board in the freezer for at least 30 minutes to set. 
Enjoy straight out of the freezer for a quick and delicious energizing snack, sell them at your local market, or even pass them off as a fancy dessert.
Remember to eat them within a week for best flavor (if you can keep them around that long).

Shiitake and Chanterelle Pizzas with Goat Cheese was submitted by Diane Gasaway of the Northwest Cooperative Development Center

I make this pizza with neighbors and friends. I found this recipe as part of a menu paired with champagnes when I graduated with a Master in Public Administration. As my first official public service, I wanted to serve friends who joined me for the celebration! Since then, it’s become a “go-to” recipe for special occasions.

Note: The vital wheat gluten flour is high in protein and helps create a chewy crust. It’s sold at some supermarkets and natural foods stores. Bread flour will also give great results. Recipe makes two 10-inch pizzas (if making one, freeze the extra).
2 1/2 cups unbleached all purpose flour or bread flour 
1/2 cup white whole wheat flour or bread flour 
3 tablespoons vital wheat gluten flour or bread flour 
1 1/2 teaspoons coarse kosher salt 
1 teaspoon sugar 
1 cup plus 2 tablespoons warm water (105°F to 115°F) 
1 1/2 teaspoons active dry yeast 
3 1/2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil, divided 
Additional unbleached all purpose flour (for kneading and shaping)
Topping: 3 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil plus additional for brushing 
6 ounces fresh shiitake mushrooms, stemmed, thinly sliced 
6 ounces fresh chanterelle mushrooms, thinly sliced 
1 cup (packed) coarsely grated whole-milk mozzarella cheese 
2/3 cup freshly grated Parmesan cheese.
Combine all flours, coarse salt, and sugar in processor. 
Stir 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons warm water and yeast in 2-cup measuring cup. Let stand until yeast dissolves, about 5 minutes. 
Stir in 3 tablespoons oil. 
With machine running, pour yeast oil mixture through feed tube. 
Blend until ball of slightly sticky dough forms, about 1 minute. 
Transfer dough to lightly floured surface; knead until smooth and elastic, adding more flour if very sticky, about 5 minutes. 
Rub with 1/2 tablespoon oil; place in resealable 1-gallon plastic bag. 
Seal bag. 
Let dough rise at room temperature until doubled, about 2 hours. 
Open bag; punch down dough in bag. Reseal. 
Chill overnight, punching down occasionally. 
Divide into thirds. 
DO AHEAD: Wrap pieces separately; freeze up to 1 week. Thaw 2 pieces in refrigerator before continuing. Let 2 wrapped pieces stand at room temperature 1 hour before shaping.
Heat 3 tablespoons oil in large skillet over medium-high heat. 
Add mushrooms; sprinkle with salt. 
Sauté until tender, about 5 minutes. 
DO AHEAD: Can be made 1 day ahead. 
Cool, cover, and chill. 
Sprinkle 2 large sheets of parchment with flour. 
Roll out 2 dough pieces, each on separate parchment sheet, to 10-inch rounds, letting dough rest a few minutes if springing back. 
Brush with oil; sprinkle each with 1/2 cup mozzarella and 1/3 cup Parmesan. Top with mushrooms, then dot with goat cheese. 
DO AHEAD: Slide pizzas on parchment onto baking sheets; cover with plastic. Chill up to 4 hours. 
Let stand at room temperature 30 minutes. 
Position 1 rack in bottom third and 1 rack in top third of oven; place heavy baking sheet on each and preheat oven to 450°F for at least 30 minutes. 
Slide 1 pizza on parchment onto each hot baking sheet. 
Bake 8 minutes; reverse sheets. 
Bake pizzas until crusts are brown at edges and on bottom, about 10 minutes. Sprinkle with chives.

Sweet Potato Biscuits was submitted by Cooperative Youth Council!

Former CoFED staff member and fellow #coopyouth, Ruby Levine, made these biscuits for the USA CYC Core during its 2016 retreat. Ruby also offered to prepare a meal for 11 people, out of sheer solidarity and kindness. These biscuits were served alongside chili, made using a recipe given to USACYC by the Traveling Cooperative Institute, a coop youth entrepreneurship training program, which got the recipe from an organizer involved with the Real Food Challenge, a student food justice organization. So, the meal at which these biscuits were served involved four different coop youth and youth-serving organizations!

3/4 cooked sweet potato 
1 1/2 cup flour 
2 1/2 tsp baking powder 
1/2 tsp nutmeg 
1/4 tsp ginger 
1/2 tsp cinnamon 
1/2 tsp salt 
1/3 cup light brown sugar 
1/2 cup (1 stick) butter 
2 tbsp whipping cream
Sift and combine flour, baking powder, salt, and spices. 
Add in sugar and butter and knead into a coarsely ground meal. 
Add sweet potatoes and milk and knead some more, but not too much. 
Make into biscuity shapes and bake for 12- 15 minutes at 425 degrees or until they taste good.
Spinach Garden Salad was submitted by Jason Rodney of Cooperative Youth Council

I share this salad with my Aunt Pia, Aunt Pisha & Sittu. This salad always brings back memories of my summer visits to my family in Providence, Rhode Island. My sittu has a glorious garden and her salads were the first I remember having with fresh herbs. Mmmmm…

1 clove garlic 
1/2 tsp salt 
3 TBSP lemon juice 
2 TBSP olive oil 
1/2 cup ground walnuts 
1 tsp cumin
Crush garlic with salt in salad bowl using wooden mortar and pestle. 
Add lemon juice and olive oil and mix well. 
Add ground walnuts, cumin and mix well. 
Toss in spinach with fresh oregano.

Ukranian Borscht was submitted by John McNamara of the Northwest Cooperative Development Center

We made this at the Connecticut Farmhouse of Tom and Joan Kemble as part of a weekend retreat with the Board of the US Federation of Worker Cooperatives and the Democracy at Work Network (DAWN) first cohort. The four-day event included DAWN’s final face-to-face meeting and training before going “live.” This is an incredible borscht recipe (beet soup) based on Anne Volokh’s recipe and her book, The Art of Russian Cuisine. She tells the story of how neighbors donated ingredients to her when she had little. It is incredibly filling and a meal in itself and will be even better the second and third days. This will make enough to easily serve a dozen people, with leftovers.

1 Pound boneless beef chuck 
3 tomatoes 
1 beef marrow bone 
3 beets, medium 
1 1/2 pounds pork spareribs 
1 carrot 
2 onions 
1 parsley root 
2 ounces celeriac 
1 Teaspoon salt 
1 Tablespoon butter, unsalted 
2 potatoes 
1/3 head cabbage 
1/2 Teaspoon black pepper 
2 Tablespoons tomato paste 
1/4 Pound ham 
1/2 Cup white beans 
1/2 cup mushrooms 
1 Tablespoon parsley leaves 
1 Tablespoon fresh dill 
3 cloves garlic 
6 teaspoons sour cream
Prep work: 
A. Bake beets at 300 degrees for 45 minutes. Allow to cool and then peel and shred coarsely. 
B. Tomatoes should be grated until the skin is left in your hand. 
C. If using beans, soak them for two hours and then simmer for two hours prior to making the borscht. 
D. If using mushrooms, they should be boiled for ten minutes.
Take all of the meat and bone marrow (except the ham) and add 1/2 of the first veggie group (onion, carrot, parsley and celeriac) and put in a large pot (4–5 qts). Add 2 1/2 quarts of water and a teaspoon of water. Simmer for an hour (slightly covered) or until the meat is tender. Strain the liquid and reserve. Skim off the fat and add salt if necessary.
Place the meat in a bowl and allow to cool then cut into small bite size pieces.
Cut remaining onion, parsley root, celery root and carrot into bit size pieces and saute in butter for fifteen minutes.
Peel the potatoes and cut into cubes. Core the cabbage and cut into bite size pieces. Bring the stock to a boil and add black pepper. Add the potatoes for then add the cabbage for another ten minutes.
Add the sauteed veggies along with the beets, tomatoes and tomato paste. After about 5 minutes, taste for salt and (if using) add the mushrooms and ham and beans. Allow another 5 minutes to bring the temperature up.
Add the meat, herbs and garlic — cover and remove from heat. Let it sit for 10 minutes. Serve with sour cream on the side.

5-ingredient Burmese Beeh Hin-yaye (red lentil soup) was submitted by Hnin W. Hnin, Co-director of CoFED

Food should be simple, nourishing, and delicious. I make this soup several times a month. It’s quick and easy to throw together at the end of a long day of work, and it’s one of my go-tos. My mom made this soup when I was growing up, my dad cooks it too, and now I prepare it with my partner. This soup brings immediate comfort. It feels like coming home, taking your shoes off and getting into home clothes (yes, this is a thing!). The ingredients are straight-forward and affordable, and that’s another big reason this soup is a staple at my house.

Red lentils, 2 cups or so
Onion, 1/2 and diced
Water, 8 cups or so
Fried shallots, handful
Salt to taste
1. Put red lentils into a pot. Wash under lukewarm water a few times or until water runs clear.
2. Fill the pot of lentils with water.
3. Turn on the fire to high heat.
4. Dice half of a medium-size onion and add to pot.
5. Add a small handful of thinly sliced fried shallots. You can make your own fried shallots or buy them, if available in your neighborhood.
6. The soup is done when the lentils have turned yellow and broken apart and the onion bits are translucent. This takes about 20 minutes. At that time, add more water if you like a more liquid soup or cook for longer if you want a thicker soup.
7. Add salt to taste.
Bonus: If you want to supe up your soup, you can add chopped tomatoes (diced), dried beancurd sticks (pre-soaked and chopped into 2-inch pieces), and thin rice noodles to make it a noodle soup! Garnish with chopped cilantro, green onions, toasted sesame, and chili oil.

More info about the contributing organizations

The Hip Hop is Green team of artists and performers use Hip Hop to speak to youth and spark positive changes in their lives. HHIG provides powerful programs for undeserved, low income urban youth and their families in areas of health and wellness through creative media and live events. The organization provides plant based meals and information as well as resources which help and inspire people to live healthy lives. To date, HHIG has served over 5,000 meals to youth and families over the last seven years.

NWCDC is a not-for-profit, 501(c)(3), organization devoted to assisting new and existing cooperative businesses, from daycare centers to credit unions.

We are a group of students looking to provide an option for conscious consumption on campus. We serve ethical, local, organic, and sustainable food options through the venue of a welcoming co-op café. As a cooperative, we are a democratically run organization that works to foster relationships in solidarity with our local community.

TESA has collaborated on projects ranging from building year long and nationwide programs to documentaries, conferences, interactive webinars, board games, handbooks, cooperative academies, community-based initiatives, and so much more! We’ve worked with some of the best co-op educators and social justice organizations out there.

The USA Cooperative Youth Council (USACYC) was formally founded on October 8th, 2012, after a year of organizing work as the USA Cooperative Youth Committee (keeping that acronym on lock through the years!). We the youth, envision a future where all people own and control the resources they need to not only survive but to thrive. As youth, we strongly believe it is our duty to usher in a newly liberated and cooperative economy that is diverse and united in coalition with social movements for equity and healing. USACYC is structured as a non-profit, non-distributive common equity cooperative with a membership that elects a Board to govern the activities of the cooperative.

If you’re interested in learning more about CoFED’s work, check out our website here: