What progress there will be 20 years Ethernet Square? Vitalik Buterin posted a personal Ethereum roadmap on Twitter. You may be curious about the meaning of his roadmap and what are the highlights of Ethereum this year?
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Expansion of Ethereum with Proof of Stake and Sharding
From top to bottom, the chart is mainly divided into four parts:
From the start of the eth2 Phase0 phase to the eth1 -> eth2 merger, the “nucleus” of the proof of work (PoW) is deleted.
Eth2 Phase 2 and later
The horizontal axis in the middle indicates the order of time. Along the horizontal axis is a “nuclesus” from Phase 0 to Phase 1, and then to eth1 -> eth2. There are three prerequisites for the merger:
Eth2 Phase1 launch
Eth1 -> eth2 merge specification and implementation
Eth1.x is stateless
After a successful merger, the system can discard the proof of work. Users will no longer need to run an eth1 client and an eth2 client to track two blockchains. Ethereum will become a sharded equity proof system, consisting of a beacon chain and a shard chain. The state of eth1 will be stored on slice 0. Users can continue to use their usual applications and send transactions as usual.
This merger is a huge leap in the scalability of Ethereum and requires a huge amount of engineering to support its possibility and enable it to operate safely and stably. The above premise classified the project.
Regarding mergers and other projects, there is still a lot to discuss, but here we only focus on nucleus and “eth1.x miscellaneous” because they are the focus of Ethereum 2020. For nucleus, we start with Phase0 of Ethereum 2.0.
Ethereum 2.0 Phase0
The beacon chain is most likely to go online in 2020.
The main premise for the beacon chain to start is:
Deploy Eth2 margin contract on the Eth1 main chain;
At least 2, and ideally at least 3 ETH2 client teams to launch a software version that can be used in a production environment
After the release of the margin contract, at least 16,384 validators (of which the total amount is at least 524,288 ETH) deposited the margin.
Why the beacon chain may be online in 2020?
Danny Ryan, Diederik Loerakker and the four teams have been building high-quality Eth2 clients. In alphabetical order, the clients being built are: Lighthouse, Nimbus, Prysm, Teku, Trinity.
There are various levels of contributors from the Ethereum Foundation and other teams such as Artemis, Harmony, Lodestar, Nethermind, Parity, and the “newcomers” who have established investment-service enterprises. Some audits were also performed.
The mission of delivering the beacon chain in 2020 is clear, and energy is concentrated. Most of the work has been done in a distributed way.
From an economic point of view, it is obvious that attracting 16,384 validators (524,288 ETH) with an annualized rate of return of more than 20% is a very creative way (at the same time, the annualized rate of return will increase with the increase in the number of validators) decline).
How to contribute to Ethereum 2020?
The production version of the beacon chain client is expected to be released after multiple rounds of audits and the multi-client test network have been running stably for a period of time; but the client test network has been running stably for a period of time, but optimization and debugging work under high load is still required.
Ethereum will always welcome more contributors. The areas that need to be contributed are: client-side peer-to-peer network formation, client interoperability, commonly used testing tools, client and network security, performance and stability.
Experts in hackers, security, EVM, and smart contracts are critical to auditing margin contracts and evaluating runtime verification. Although the bytecode of the margin contract has not yet been deployed on the main chain, you can take the lead because there will be no changes to the margin contract.
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Ethereum 1.x needs help
The top part “eth1.x miscellaneous” in the figure below refers to projects related to the current Ethereum mainnet.
This part can be divided into three projects. Roughly speaking, there are three EIPs. Only dedicated contributors are needed to deploy to the mainnet in 2020.
BLS12–381 pre-compilation has been mentioned by Alex Vlasov of Matter Labs for several months. EIP2537 is also in progress. EIP2537 adds support for the BLS12–381 curve used by Eth2, enabling smart contracts to become eth2 light clients. Through pre-compilation, new smart contracts can be written to verify data from eth2 shards. Fragmentation will be introduced when eth2 Phase1 starts to improve the data availability of eth1’s rollups scheme. Rollup is actually a kind of smart contract. A large amount of calculation and storage are placed off-chain, but some data will be placed on-chain for easy feedback. When data availability is not restricted, Rollup is more scalable. With the work of Alex Vlasov, the BLS12–381 precompilation is likely to be introduced in 2020 (even earlier than the beacon chain).
EIP-1559 is beneficial to users, because users can ignore the gas fee setting during transactions, and at the same time, they can guarantee that they will not pay excessively high handling fees or wait for abnormal delays. The EIP wrote: “It is expected that most users will no longer need to manually set the Gas fee, even if the transaction activity in the network is very frequent.” In addition, its elegance lies in the consumption of some fees to offset the inflation of ETH without much Reduce miners’ rewards. Since EIP was proposed a year ago, EIP has made some progress. However, no one stepped forward to lead this work.
Account abstraction allows users to create accounts with arbitrary authorization logic. Its flexibility may have far-reaching implications. Here is a simple example: a multi-signature smart contract wallet can use its own funds to pay for its transaction gas fees. As long as there is a wallet with funds in it, there is no need for another An account holding ETH to interact with this wallet and pay Gas fees. The history of account abstraction can be traced back to 2015, but a proposal made a month ago makes it possible to realize account abstraction in 2020.
From a current point of view, the rough sequence of possible developments on Ethereum is as follows:
1. The beacon chain will be launched in 2020 (Eth2 Phase0)
2. BLS12–381 curve compilation will be launched in 2020 (maybe it will be launched at the earliest)
3. If someone promotes account abstraction and EIP1559, it may be realized in 2020
5.Eth 1.x stateless
6.eth1 -> eth2 big merge
7. (Follow-up) execution mode, privacy and security enhancement, and encryption technology
The beacon chain is the project that most people are committed to achieving in 2020. “Eth2 looks pretty good-Phase 0’s specifications are finalized, and the client team is working through trials and tribulations.” On Eth1, the Geth team will continue to move forward, and the BLS12–381 curve pre-compilation may be introduced in 2020 (maybe earlier than the beacon chain). However, EIP 1559 and account abstraction need those who take the lead to have a chance to be launched in 2020. This roadmap also talks about many things that are advanced in parallel, maybe we can discuss them in a follow-up article.