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The UTXO model

A technical cornerstone of Bitcoin

Visualization of a transaction. Image by Satoshi Nakamoto (Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System)

Bitcoin is based on the UTXO (unspent transaction output) model to ensure that nobody is able to spend money they don’t have and prevent money from being spent twice — so-called double-spending. In this article, you will learn how that works. Let’s go!

The Context




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Martin Thoma

Martin Thoma

I’m a Software Engineer with over 10 years of Python experience (Backend/ML/AI). Support me via

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