Users Can Enjoy The Determinism of Cardano’s EUTxO Model

Cardanians.io (CRDNS pool)
Coinmonks
9 min readMay 8, 2024

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From the perspective of application developers, the UTxO model is fundamentally different from the account-based model. The account-based model is simple and offers developers high flexibility, especially if it is necessary to define complex execution logic. However, excessive flexibility comes at the expense of execution guarantees, resulting in system vulnerabilities and attacks. Working with the UTxO model is more complicated, but it offers developers (and therefore users) several advantages, namely determinism. Let’s explain it in more detail.

The UTxO Model from the Perspective of Transactions

In the case of the UTxO model, a transaction can be perceived as a function that consumes one or multiple input UTxOs and produces one or multiple output UTxOs.

UTxOs that enter the transaction are immutable and, as we will show later, from the point of view of the application user it is possible to ensure exclusive access. During transaction validation, it is ensured that the value of input UTxOs is equal to the value of all output UTxOs. At the level of validation of all transactions in the block, it is possible to ensure protection against a double-spend attack, as each input UTxO can be consumed only once and completely. Each newly added block to the ledger defines…

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Cardanians.io (CRDNS pool)
Coinmonks

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