Part II: 2 WAYS to Smokin’ Fast Open Turns

Dan Dingman
Jan 15, 2019 · 5 min read
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Two weeks ago, we discussed the 3 steps swimmers must do to setup for PERFECT open turns. This week, we are diving deeper into what happens after swimmers have completed those 3 steps and both of their hands have touched the wall.

In case you haven’t read Part I of this series, . Otherwise, let’s get started!

In reality, there is only two styles of an open turn. The two styles are called:

1.The Spin Turn

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2. The Crunch Turn*

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Both of these styles are still being taught and used by swimmers all around the world. The most interesting piece of these two turns is that they are fundamentally the same movement pattern-with the only major difference being- where the body is directed towards after the transition between hand touch and push-off.

What Does the Direction of the Body have to do with Open Turns?

The direction of the body is the path the swimmer’s body follows during the turn. With these two turn styles, swimmers can decide what path to follow based off of how they angle their body.

During a Spin Turn — swimmers touch the wall, then immediately angle their ear towards the surface of water on whatever side they choose to turn towards, while getting the opposite hip up towards the water’s surface. This allows the swimmer’s legs to crunch up, then spin around to the side-before planting on the wall. So swimmers goes from a vertical to horizontal position, as quick as possible.

During the Crunch Turn — swimmers touch the wall, then they follow the same line they used to hit the wall in the first place to transition back off the wall. It is a straight in and straight out type of turn, where swimmers stay vertical the entire time.

What is the Fundamental Movement Pattern within these Two Turning Styles?

Below are the STEPS to the fundamental movement pattern within these two styles:

1.As soon as the swimmer’s hands hit the wall, they bend at their knees and bring their knees into their stomach-crunch the body into a small ball.

2. After the ball is completed, swimmers angle their body (according to the turn they are trying to execute) and start rotating their body-staying in a ball-so the feet come forward/under the body and eventually, plant on the wall. The moment the swimmers feet touch the wall, the swimmers head and chest will be at a further distance from the wall, as they will end up holding onto the wall with one semi-straight arm.

In order to get into the position with one-arm at the wall, swimmers will let go of the wall with whatever arm their turning towards, by bending the elbow of that respective arm and bringing their hand towards their side. So if a swimmer turns left, they will remove their left arm and bend their elbow-bringing their left hand towards their side.

Once the arm is at their side, swimmers will externally rotating the forearm of that arm (keeping the elbow bent), but changing the angle of the palm to face away from the body.

After the palm is successfully angled away from the body, swimmers will fully extend that elbow and eventually, winding up into their normal “ready” position.

Key Technique Point: You always follow where your fingertips point, so if your fingertips of your extended arm point down, during this step-you’ll go towards the bottom, etc.

3. Normal “ready” position is defined as: swimmers feet and knees are shoulder width apart, one hand should on the wall, and the other arm off the wall-pointing to where the swimmer wants to go.

4. After an awesome “ready” position has been achieved, swimmers perform a traditional push-off by extending the legs and letting go of the wall with other arm, by bending its’ elbow behind the swimmers head (creating a shark fin). Then eventually, extending that arm straight to reach for the other arm-locking into a streamline-as the swimmer finishes their leg extension.

5. If all four steps are completed correctly, swimmers will push-off the wall nice, tight streamline about 1.5m below the water’s surface.

Pros & Cons of Each Turn Style:

Spin Turn:

Still get a BREATH

Requires great body awareness to spin sideways

Land on the wall in a different ready position, as the toes are angled towards the side of the pool they spun towards, which can add more variability to the push-off.

A swimmer must be able to get their ear down & opposite hip up towards the surface-as quick as possible. Not as easy as it sounds.

Crunch Turn:

GUARANTEED, awesome push-of every time

Easier to perform this turn without getting into a tight ball, which slows speed down even more

TWO LESS STEPS on the wall (no ear or hip movement like in a spin turn)

With these Pros and Cons in mind, it’s obvious to me that beginner swimmers and younger swimmers should learn the crunch turn first, then as they progress and get older start teaching the spin turn.

As always with technical advice, just because something is FASTER on paper-doesn’t mean it is FASTER for you. Listen to your coach to see if you can actually execute a great spin turn, and if you can’t-stay with the crunch!

Until Next Time,

Abbie Fish


Originally published at on January 15, 2019.

Commit Swimming

A range of competitive swimming articles ranging from…

Dan Dingman

Written by

Commit Swimming

A range of competitive swimming articles ranging from workout analysis to technique guidance brought to you by CommitSwimming.com. Commit Swimming is simple and powerful workout management software for swim coaches.

Dan Dingman

Written by

Commit Swimming

A range of competitive swimming articles ranging from workout analysis to technique guidance brought to you by CommitSwimming.com. Commit Swimming is simple and powerful workout management software for swim coaches.

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