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# Functional JS with ES6 — Booleans, Conditionals, and Operators

I’ll start this article with a warning, I mention the use of Lambda Calculus, but do not let that scare you! I promise, no knowledge of λ-Calculus is required to understand or use the main concepts in this article! Phew!

In my last Functional JS article, we went over recursive patterns that allow you to operate/iterate over array values. This time, we’re going to get a bit more abstract to hopefully explain some of the bare fundamentals of functional programming.

# A moment on Currying

You’ll notice that we never define a function with more than 1 argument. We return a new function for every additional argument needed. This is a technique used very commonly in functional programming that has its roots in Lambda Calculus. This has multiple benefits, but is used mainly to simplify partial application of functions.

# What are we doing?

Glad you asked! We’re going to re-create: `true`, `false`, `||`(or), `&&`(and), `!`(not), `==`(equals), and `!=`(not equals). As a bonus, we’re going to use some magical Lambda Calculus to make our functions much more efficient!

# Let’s get started!

The first functions we need to define are our booleans: `true` and `false`. How we define these functions makes more sense once they’re used with the conditional function we soon define. The way we represent booleans as functions is a concept known as Church Booleans.

# TRUE (true):

No, I’m not trying to yell, I’m using this naming convention because true in all lowercase is a reserved word and can’t be used to name our function. This function takes two arguments and will always return the first argument. In comparison, the `FALSE` function does the same, but always returns the second argument. These functions are also known as `selectFirst` and `selectSecond` in other languages.

# FALSE (false):

Almost identical to the `TRUE` function, but returns the second argument rather than the first.

# Conditional (cond):

The next function we need to define is our function that will handle conditional logic. Normally we’d use an if/else statement or a ternary to do this, but we want everything to be a function. It’s functions all the way down, this comes in handy later on.

If you break down a conditional in JavaScript, you end up with 3 parts:

1. Conditional Statement
2. Expression when `true`
3. Expression when `false`

To mimic this, we will create a function that takes 3 arguments and returns the conditional function with both expressions applied. If you notice, I place the conditional last rather than first. This is a functional programming convention that helps when creating partially applied functions.

If you remember how we defined our booleans, they are both functions that when called with 2 arguments, return one of these arguments. This is exactly how our conditional function is going to work. The conditional function (`TRUE` or `FALSE`) passed in is called with 2 arguments, our expressions when true and false.

# Not (!)

This is the first logical operator we will define. It takes a single argument: `x`. If `x` is `TRUE` it returns `FALSE`, if `x` is `FALSE` it returns `TRUE`. We make use of the previously defined `cond` function to handle the conditional logic. Within the conditional: if `x` is `TRUE` we return `FALSE` otherwise we return `TRUE` .

# Or (||)

This is the first logical operator we will define. It takes 2 arguments: `x` and `y`. If either `x` or `y` is `TRUE`, we will return `TRUE`, otherwise we return `FALSE`. Again, we use the `cond` function to handle this. Within the conditional: if `x` is `TRUE` we return `TRUE` otherwise we return `y` .

# And (&&)

This function takes 2 arguments: `x` and `y`. Both `x` and `y` must be `TRUE` for this to return `TRUE`, otherwise it will return `FALSE`. We make use of the `cond` function again, not much is different. Within the conditional: if `x` is `TRUE` we return `y` otherwise we return `FALSE`.

# Equal (==)

This function takes 2 arguments: `x` and `y`. Both `x` and `y` must be the same value for this to return `TRUE` otherwise it returns `FALSE`. We need to use the `cond` function and the `not` function to handle this one! Within the conditional: if `x` is `TRUE` we return `y` otherwise we return `not(y)`to only return `TRUE` when `y` is also `FALSE`.

# Not Equal (!=)

This function takes 2 arguments: `x` and `y`. `x` and `y` must not be the same value for this to return `TRUE`, otherwise `FALSE` is returned.

# EXTRA: β (Beta) Reductions through λ-Calculus

Disclaimer: do not feel the need to understand this at all as it is not a requirement to understand and use functional concepts. However, I think it’s an interesting topic to learn about and helps demonstrate the power of functional programming through math. I will gloss over topics as I am not the best resource to learn λ-Calculus, it is not the focus of this article, just an added bonus. These optimizations are handled automatically with most statically compiled functional languages.

## And (&&) Reduction

In the following example, we use β reduction to remove the use of our `cond` function entirely from our `and` function. Our `and` function is now composed entirely with booleans and is mathematically equivalent!

## Or (||) Reduction

Again, we use reduction to remove the use of our `cond` function entirely from our `or` function. Like before, our `or` function is now composed entirely with booleans and is mathematically equivalent.

## Equal (==) Reduction

Just like before, we use reduction to remove the use of our `cond` function entirely from our `equal` function. Our `equal` function is now composed entirely with booleans and is mathematically equivalent.

## Not Equal(!=) Reduction

For the last time, we remove the use of our `cond` function entirely from our `notEqual` function. Our `notEqual` function is now composed entirely with booleans and is mathematically equivalent.

# Wrapping Up

I hope this helped demonstrate the power and flexibility of functions. This logic can be shared and re-written in any language that has first-class functions!

The functions and concepts used in the article will be expanded in a later article where we use Church numerals to represent natural numbers as pure functions. We will even implement arithmetic and comparison operators for these numbers! 🚀

# Feedback? Words of encouragement? 🎉

I’m glad you made it, hopefully you learned a few patterns or pieces of information to use in the future. I’m always looking to improve my articles, if you would like to leave feedback (I would love it if you did!) you can find the Google Form here. It’s very short, I promise!

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