Artificial Intelligence and Quantum Computing: The Future of Innovation
While Artificial Intelligence and its techniques are fully adopted and utilized by both large and small scale organizations around the world, quantum computers are in demand by few organizations and accessible to certain research bodies.The concept of quantum computing, however, is yet to be understood by some.
This article focuses on what is believed to be the main spearheading technologies for global, technological and economic advancement.
From robotics to virtual/alternate reality, self-driving cars to personal assistants like Siri, Alexa, (to mention but a few). Artificial Intelligence focuses on building intelligent systems to execute domain specific tasks (physical and knowledge-based) independently. AI techniques are implemented for their various use-cases and further researched upon for even more technological breakthroughs
Fuzzy Logic is a methodology based on the human cognitive decision making process defined by levels of uncertainty- unlike classical logic with just 0s and 1s(or true and false). Fuzzy logic comprises of truths including 0 and 1(extreme truths) and numerals in-between(degrees of truth). Its application is mostly for decision making and pattern recognition.
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Artificial Neural Network models the biological neural network where inputs are received, processed and sent out as output. ANN is composed of nodes similar to biological neurons, these nodes are connected by links. Links provide the output of a node as an input to the immediate connecting node and each link has its associated weight. A network can be single-layered or multi-layered. It is used to solve problems like prediction, regression, classification, clustering, pattern recognition and so on.
Expert Systems are computer systems or applications created to solve domain-specific problems similar to a human expert in that domain. It is composed of a knowledge base and an inference engine. A knowledge base stores complex domain-specific facts used by the expert system and this information is sourced by professionals and knowledge engineers. An inference engine extrapolates solutions and recommendations by applying logical rules on the information obtained from the user through a user interface and facts from the knowledge base. Other domains of AI include Natural Language Processing and Robotics.
Exhibitions at the 2020 Consumer Electronics Show (CES 2020) declared without a reasonable doubt that AI has proven concepts deemed impossible in the past years possible, some exhibitions displayed are:
- Withings ScanWatch- a smartwatch for tracking sleep apnea and heartbeat irregularities
- Dolby’s Vision IQ- a technology that uses in-built sensors to optimize the image content on the TV based on the brightness of a room
- BrainCo’s Prosthetic hand- works with the amputee’s brain waves and muscle signals to enhance movement
- LG’s ThinQ washer-a frontload washer that uses a sensor to adjust its washing cycles per fabric loaded into it
- Sony’s Vision S- an electric car that assures safety, adaptability and entertainment
- Toyota’s promise of a smart city
AI is indeed a driving force in all sectors of the world, its impact on businesses and healthcare is massive, yet this technology is believed to still be evolving.
Unlike classical computers that use the single state of objects and bits of 0 and 1, quantum computers use quantum bits or qubits. Qubits can be represented in a single state of 0 or 1, it can also be superpositioned and entangled. Quantum Superposition is a principle of quantum mechanics which states that “any two quantum state can be added together and the result will be another valid quantum state”. Quantum Entanglement describes an event that occurs when particles interact (or are entangled).These particles become dependent on one another and so does their quantum state even when they are separated. Based on these principles, quantum computers tend to be more powerful and solve complex problems faster and more efficiently.
“ Quantum computers could spur the development of new breakthroughs in science, medications to save lives, machine learning methods to diagnose illnesses sooner, materials to make more efficient devices and structures, financial strategies to live well in retirement, and algorithms to quickly direct resources such as ambulances.”
Although the full practical capabilities of a quantum computer in terms of serving consumer needs is yet to be known, companies such as IBM, Google and Microsoft are investing in it. IBM’s research quantum computers are accessible through its Qiskit SDK on the cloud for users and researchers. Researchers are working on various methodologies in order to reduce computational errors. Amazon also provides quantum computing service on the cloud called Amazon Braket and Microsoft with Azure Quantum.
Quantum computing will definitely be a major a technological breakthrough if an error-free computation is be achieved.