Chrome first introduced the “Add to Home screen” banners in Chrome 51. This was a big step for the web as it provided users the ability to easily keep a favorite site on their Home screen, much like native apps. We’ve heard from developers like Alibaba that users re-engage 4 times more often with their site added to Home screen. We’ve also seen that tuning the heuristics for add to Home screen to prompt sooner yields to 48% more installs.
We are happy to share that the team has worked on an improved add to Home screen experience that makes web apps first-class citizens of Android. Instead of simply being a shortcut icon, web apps will now be integrated with Android. This means that users that add a PWA to their Home screen will be able to find it anywhere they see other apps (e.g. in the app drawer or searching for apps), and open the site from intents. We see this as the first step among a number of improvements to come and intend to make it the default experience for add to Home screen in the coming months.
The improved add to Home screen experience is already available in Chrome Canary and will be rolling out to Chrome 57 beta over the next few weeks.
You can test your site by following these steps:
- Install the latest Chrome Dev or Chrome Beta from the Play Store if you don’t have it already.
- Enable improved add to Home screen. These steps are only needed during the developer preview.
- Open chrome://flags in Chrome dev and enable the flag #enable-improved-a2hs (“Find in page” in the triple-dot menu is helpful for finding it.) You’ll be prompted to restart Chrome.
- Once Chrome is restarted, you’ll be prompted to go to settings to turn on “Unknown sources” if it’s not enabled already. (In general you shouldn’t have this enabled, so we recommend disabling it when you’re done testing.) If you don’t see the prompt you can find it in Android Settings > Security > Device Administration.
- Visit your PWA. You can start install from the three dot menu > “Add to Home screen” or through the Add to Home screen banner.
- In the developer preview you’ll additionally see a prompt from the package installer to confirm.
This new experience is a huge improvement over the original version of Add to Home screen, but there are some differences between these installed Progressive Web Apps and Android Apps.
Updating your App’s icon and name
You now have the ability to update your Progressive Web App’s icon and name and have it reflected to the user. Changing your icon or name in the manifest will update the icon on the Home screen after the user has subsequently opened the site.
Android Intent Filters
When a Progressive Web App is installed via this new Improved Add to Home screen experience it will be registered with the system to be a target for the URL space for its domain. This means that the when a user clicks on a link that is contained within the scope of your Progressive Web App, your app will be opened up instead of Chrome with your PWA running.
The scope is property in the Web App manifest and it defaults to the origin. You can set it to an path that is relative to your origin and subsequently when a user navigates to a URL contained by the scope your installed Progressive Web App will be open.
Note: directly navigating to your site from the address bar will work exactly the same as it does for native apps that have an intent filter, Chrome assumes that the user intended to visit the site and will open the site.
By Installing your Progressive Web App it now becomes part of the system. Added sites show up on the Home screen, app drawer and throughout the Android System-UI as a user would expect. Permissions are handled differently, by default your app can only have the same permissions surface as Chrome would normally have when installed — you can’t ask for Camera access at install time for example. This means that as developer you must request permission for sensitive API’s such as Camera and Microphone access, notifications etc at runtime as you would for any normal web site and the Chrome runtime will prompt you for access.
Android normally gives instant access notifications, Installed Progressive Web Apps do not have this permission granted by default and your user must explicitly opt-in to receiving notifications
Storage and App State
When the user adds your Progressive Web App to their system Chrome will use the same profile and will not segregate the data. This means your service worker will already be installed, your cookies still active any client-side storage will be still stored the next time that the user opens the App.
This can cause some issues because if the user clears the Chrome profile, then your data in your app will also be cleared. To ensure that your user data is held more permanently, please use the Persistent Storage API.
Please let us know if you have any feedback or questions. If you encounter a bug, you can file it on the Chromium bug tracker. Please also take a look at FAQs below that aim to answer any additional questions you might have.
What are the requirements for a site to use improved add to Home screen?
The requirements are designed to be the same as the technical requirements for the add to Home screen banner.
We recommend using Lighthouse to audit your PWA.
Note though that there is no engagement threshold for improved add to Home screen from the menu.
Does this change the triggering of the add to Home screen banner?
Improved add to Home screen does not itself change the triggering or behavior of the banner. Nevertheless, Chrome has recently lowered the site-engagement threshold for the banner to trigger and is constantly experimenting with improvements to this system. (See the keynote from Chrome Dev Summit.)
What happens to users who have already added a site to their Home screen?
Users will continue to get the existing add to Home screen experience, though if they add it again manually via the menu button, the new icon will use improved add to Home screen.
What will happen to the current add to Home screen experience?
Improved add to Home screen will replace add to Home screen for PWAs. There is no change to the existing functionality of add to Home screen for non-PWAs.
What happens if the user has already installed the native app for the site?
Like add to Home screen today, users will be able to add a site independent of any native apps. If you expect users to potentially install both, we recommend differentiating the icon or name of your site from your native app.
When a user opens a site installed via improved add to Home screen, will Chrome be running?
Yes, once the site is opened from the Home screen the primary activity is still Chrome. Cookies, permissions, and all other browser state will be shared.
Will my installed site’s storage be cleared if the user clears Chrome’s cache?
Will I get auto granted Push Notifications permissions like I do in Android?
No, but we intend to experiment with this at a later date. (See the keynote from Chrome Dev Summit.)
Will I be able to register to handle custom URL schemes and protocols?
Will I be able to register to open files of a specific type (i.e, PDF)?
No, but we are exploring that independently with the Web Share Target API.
How are permissions handled? Will I see the Chrome prompt or Android’s?
Permissions will still be managed through Chrome. Users will see the Chrome prompts to grant permissions and will be able to edit them in Chrome settings.
What versions of Android will this work on?
The feature is supported wherever Chrome is, back to Android Jelly Bean.
Does this use the WebView?
No, the site opens in the version of Chrome the user added the site from.
If I update my site’s service worker, will this update automatically in the background even without the user visiting the site?
No. The update to the SW will be processed the next time that the user visits the page.
Originally published on Web Updates — Google Developers