CalArts: Intro. to Typography-W2: 2.4 Clarendon: Type for the Masses

At the beginning of the 19th century, traditional Roman book typography had reached a pinnacle จุดสูงสุด of refinement การขัดเกลา in modern serifs like Didot.

But the context in which typography existed was changing.

The Industrial Revolution was underway in Western Europe and the United States.

People were moving from the country to the cities, taking jobs in factories and offices, buying manufactured goods in department stores, reading newspapers and novels.

And typography was the common medium of communication in this new literate urban consumer society.

So in this case study, we’re going to look at a type face that came out of this new context. The type face, Clarendon.

With the emergence การปรากฎออกมา การวิวัฒนาการ of a literate อ่านออกเขียนได้ มีการศึกษา mass market, came all sorts of new uses for type. 
Instead of just existing in books, type now appeared on posters and fliers, on product packaging and in advertisements.

And these new roles for type, demanded letter forms that were larger, bolder and more eye-catching.

Traditional metal type could only get so big before it became too heavy and unwieldy to print with.

So it was a real breakthrough when in 1823, an American type manufacturer named Darius Wells developed a process for manufacturing type out of wood.

Wood type was a lot lighter than metal type and it allowed for the design of larger, more complex letter forms.

Over the course of the 19th century,
 type designers and founders, companies that produced type, competed with one another to produce ever more novel and exotic typographic forms.

They designed ultra bold modern serifs called Fat Faces.

They lobbed the serifs of of type altogether to create the first san serifs.

They designed type that looked three dimensional and type with patterns, ornaments, and textures incorporated into it.

And in the printing of the time, 
these different type styles were often combined into eclectic ซึ่งสรรหาจากแหล่งต่างๆ, ซึ่งคัดสรรจากสิ่งที่ดีที่สุด, compositions designed to shout their message as loudly as possible.

One style from this period that has remained popular is what was at the time called Egyptian Style type.

And is today called Slab Serif type.

The most successful Egyptian typeface is Clarendon
Designed in around 1845 by the English designer Robert Besley.

So let’s take a closer look.

Slab แผ่นแบนกว้างที่ค่อนข้างหนา serifs get their name from their thick, block-like serifs.

Egyptians, like Clarendon, also have distinctive ornate looking terminals on letters, like the c, r, and y in this word, called ball terminals.

Slab serifs usually have a vertical axis.

And they tend to have a very large x-height,
which gives them a sturdy industrial look.

So why Egyptian?

Well, the 19th century was the age of European imperialism and exploration in Africa and Asia
And there was a popular obsession in Europe with what were perceived as exotic cultures and aesthetics.

So the name Egyptian may simply have been an effort to associate the exotic forms of this type style with this romantic fetish เครื่องราง for foreignness that was present in Europe at the time.

Unsurprisingly, because of their distinctively ornate ซึ่งประดับมากเกินไป,ฉูดฉาด and exotic forms and their sturdy แข็งแกร่ง,มั่นคง,ทนทาน industrial construction,

slab serifs today conjure up ทำให้เกิด(บางสิ่ง) ในใจ, ก่อให้เกิด, ผุดขึ้นในใจ associations with the Victorian era, with industrialism, spectacle, and ornament.