Estonian soldiers built a sauna in Africa to support their peacekeeping mission

The Estonian military has a tradition of building saunas on deployment.

If you think it’s hot in Estonia this jaanipäev (midsummer) weekend then spare a thought for Estonian soldiers serving in 40-degree Celcius heat out in Mali, West Africa.

Of course, that won’t stop them from celebrating with a good Estonian sauna.

Members of the Estonian Defence Forces at Gao Military Base, which they share with French and other allied forces, have just opened their own ‘Gao spa’ with a sauna that can fit up to eight people at a time.

As there is no sauna aisle in the local shops, the soldiers had to bring the equipment and materials with them from Estonia, including an electric stove that they had to use due to fire regulations on the base. Even the wooden interiors are brought from Estonia in order to provide the right atmosphere.

The Estonian military has a tradition of setting up saunas while on deployment, including in Afghanistan and Lebanon, and they always ensure that no sauna is left behind afterwards.

It took them approximately one week to build their new sauna in Mali so that it’s ready just in time for their midsummer night celebrations.

Major Jaanus Tuulik, who is in charge of Estonian forces there, explained that it is important to continue Estonian traditions while deployed abroad and that the sauna is important for morale, especially between busy shifts.

Although sauna culture is most commonly associated with the wintery weather of northern Europe, different forms of sweat bathing were once widespread elsewhere in the world, including in hot countries like sweat lodges in central America and hammams in the Middle East. Here in West Africa, for example, ‘vapour baths’ were commonly used for healing until relatively recently.

In addition to still providing physical health benefits in hot weather, there is plenty of research to suggest that the most important benefit of the sauna is social bonding, which is essential among soldiers. One study even showed that men who sweat together are more likely to co-operate together afterwards.

The Estonian military even introduced a rule in 1998 making it mandatory for soldiers to go to the sauna at least once per week. The rule is no longer mandatory, but still commonly respected.

The Estonian soldiers at Gao are providing logistics, repair and medical support to Operation Barkhane, a French-led fight against Islamist extremism in the area, which prevents people from having to leave their homes as refugees and being trafficked to Europe. Estonian soldiers in Mali are also serving under the UN peacekeeping mission MINUSMA and the European Union’s regional stability mission EUTM. This helps the Mali government organise free elections, build up their ability to govern effectively and protect human rights across the country.

The Estonian Ministry of Defence says that supporting the international community with these peacekeeping efforts abroad is an essential part of protecting Estonia at home.

Despite having a sauna, Estonian soldiers will still be having a very unusual midsummer night in Mali. The sky will be fully dark, the night will last twice as long and — strangest of all — it won’t be raining.

About ‘Estonian Saunas’

Thanks for reading. The Estonian Saunas blog is run by Anni and Adam, explorers and exporters of Estonian saunas.

Anni is a green building specialist who grew up here in Estonia immersed in sauna culture, while Adam is a väliseestlane (‘foreign Estonian’) whose family were exiled to the UK during Soviet times but he has now returned and is still trying to understand the sauna — and everything else about his Estonian heritage.

Together, we love finding weird and wonderful saunas all over Estonia and telling the world about them. Check out our plan to make 100 Estonian saunas more famous around the world.

We also offer two saunas in Tallinn that you can visit. Both are based on the best of Estonian design and technology, although in very different ways. The first is our smoke sauna, Rangi saun, which combines an ancient sauna heating technique with a contemporary Estonian design. The second is our WiFi-controlled e-sauna, Tondi Saun, which is part of our apartment that you can book through Airbnb.

In addition to reading our blog, you can follow Estonian Saunas on Instagram, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. There’s also a Facebook group for fans of Estonian saunas where you can share advice and stories.

Finally, you can email us at



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