How to Use Ecto.Changeset

or, be the changeset you want to see in the world

Tracy Lum
Tracy Lum
May 28, 2019 · 7 min read

This post explains how Ecto.Changeset can help you make safer changes to
your data by providing a foundation for thinking more strategically about
providing multiple update policies.

A troublesome update scenario

Imagine you're building an application that does a lot of complex business workflows. Like creating invoices and sending them out.

Maybe there are different types of invoices: invoices for deposits and invoices for tuition installment payments. You can create invoices and schedule them. You can cancel them. You can edit their due dates. But what if you try to change the due date and accidentally cancel the invoice while you're trying to update the invoice record?

Whoops. Disaster.

This scenario might sound contrived, but it's easier to make this mistake
than you might expect because not every change to a database record follows
the same rules. We need separate policies for different types of updates.

I've been working with Rails for the past three years and only recently
hopped on the Elixir / Phoenix bandwagon, so let's think about how we might
implement in the Rails framework.

Building Invoicing in Rails

In Rails, aided by ActiveRecord, you'd most likely create an Invoice model that maps precisely to an invoices table. You generate a migration and running that migration automatically updates the schema, so you know what tables and columns exist at any time.

In Rails, the convention is to write validations on the model. All invoices
require an amount due, a due date, and a scheduled send date. Invoices can
exist in a state where they're scheduled, but not sent, and sent but
unpaid. If you wanted, you could also add conditional validations in the
model, like an invoice can only be closed if it’s unpaid.

That's all fine. You build out the web app so that users can perform basic
CRUD actions on invoices. (I'm glossing over a lot of Rails conventions here,
but hopefully that's OK since this is just for demonstrative purposes.)

Now, let's assume the invoice is created and the invoicer wants to edit the
invoice. The invoicer goes to the Invoice#edit form and sees a bunch of
fields. She makes her changes, clicks submit, and boom. The invoice is

A few beats later, another developer wants to implement closing an invoice.
Since closing an invoice is modifying an existing record, the developer
thinks to reuse the existing update action in the controller and throws a
field denoting a cancel on the form.

But what's in those invoice_params?!

It could be anything. Even a closed_at timestamp. The next thing you know, the invoice is mysteriously closed and someone has to go
figure out why.

All it takes is a few lines of code to create a lot of surface area for
weird bugs.

This is where the beauty of Ecto.Changeset comes in. It's a module with a
set of functions that helps you reason about the ways in which you're
changing your data and more explicitly manage strategies for changes.

Why Ecto.Changeset?

First, a couple points of clarification:

  • Ecto is a database library or "persistence framework" for Elixir. It's not the only one, but it's a nice one.
  • Ecto is two separate packages: ecto and ecto_sqlso you can get the
    data manipulation features without using a relational database.
  • You can use Ecto without Phoenix if you're building a basic Elixir app. However, it works really nicely with Phoenix, so hooray.

And now, onto the Ecto.Changeset, which is one module that's part of the Ecto library. What's a changeset? Well, it's a data structure with some
helper functions that helps you manipulate, cast, filter, validate, and
otherwise transform your data into the format you expect.

Let's think about building out the same invoicing functionality in an Elixir

Building Invoicing in Elixir

In Elixir, using Ecto, you could make a changeset for every
update strategy you need.

For creating an invoice, you could create a changeset that looks like this:

In this changeset, only three fields are allowed to be updated. So even though the paid_at and closed_at columns exist in the invoices table, you cannot update them with this default changeset because it wouldn't make sense to create an invoice and close it or mark it as paid at the same time. If those
attributes are passed to this changeset, the changes are filtered out and

The extra attribute closed_at disappears and is not included in the set of changes. So no matter how hard you try to close an invoice when you create it, you can't. Because of the rules defined as part of this changeset.

What would be cooler is if we defined changesets to handle each of those
kinds of updates as well.

What's nice here is that we can skip the validation for checking if the due
date is past, because that no longer applies in this scenario. If the due
date is past, that doesn't mean the record is invalid. It just means that
the payment is overdue.

Now, let's think about closing an invoice. It doesn't make sense to close an
invoice if it's already been paid. So we can write a custom validation to
enforce this rule.

The entire act of creating or updating a record is encapsulated nicely
within the changeset. Validations are explicitly applied in specific
situations. Attributes are cast and filtered all as part of the same
pipeline, instead of splitting the responsibility between a model and a
controller. Thanks to Ecto.Changeset, we have a saner way of thinking about updates to our records.

Cool, and what else can changesets do?

Let's go into a little more detail about what exactly is going on in a

As I mentioned earlier, changesets are powerful and they can do a lot of
work to help you manipulate your data. Like many things in Elixir, we can
think about changesets in terms of pipelines.

|> cast_allowable_fields_to_their_types_as_defined_in_ecto_schema(params, [:whitelisted_field, :whitelisted_field])
|> validate_format_presence_and_everything_else_you_need()
|> handle_constraints(:field)

Back to our original example. We have a set of parameters that are sent from
a form and not generated by the application itself, so we are leveraging the cast function from Ecto. (If you were manipulating data generated by the application, you could use the change function instead, which skips casting to the correct data type.)

Next, we validate that the attributes required for this change are present.

And finally, we add some custom validations to ensure that we're not trying
to create an invoice for the past.

With all of these changesets, the final thing you need to do to commit the change is get the Repo involved.

Inserting or updating the record like this would do the trick:


Or, better yet, define a context with a function to encapsulate the changes.

defmodule Registrar.Billing do
def create_invoice(attributes) do
|> Registrar.Billing.Invoice.changeset(attributes)
|> Repo.insert!()

If you wanted to look at the set of changes, you could get a reference to the changeset and call .changes on it, which would list out all the changes about to be made. Also, if you wanted to check validity, simply call .valid? on the changeset. And .errors will give you a list of any errors.

What about constraints, though?

Great question.

So, all of the validations will get run before the database even gets involved, and if any validations failed, constraints will not be checked. Constraints will halt execution at the first failed constraint and they depend on the database.

Constraints are typically used in conjunction with database indexes.

For example, you might use a constraint to check for uniqueness, or to
confirm that a foreign key exists in another table.

To check uniqueness, you would add a unique_index to your table and then
define a constraint as part of a changeset.

In the example of invoices, let's say that an invoice must have a unique
email address.

defmodule Registrar.Repo.Migrations.ChangeInvoicesTable do
use Ecto.Migration

def change do
create unique_index(:invoices, :email)

Then, we define a constraint in the changeset to gracefully handle the error thrown by the database constraint. This will convert the database constraint violation into a friendlier error handled by the changeset and returned.

If the email "" was already associated with an invoice and
we tried to insert a new record, we'd get a changeset error like the

action: :insert,
changes: %{
email: ""
errors: [
email: {"has already been taken",
constraint: :unique,
constraint_name: "email_index"
data: #Registrar.Billing.Invoice<>,
valid?: false

So constraints delegate to the database. This is especially useful when dealing with potential race conditions. For example, if you were checking uniqueness in a model or in the code, it's possible that a record is inserted into the database while you're doing the uniqueness check. By delegating to the database, we're certain that no duplicates slip in.

And can I use changesets without a schema?

Yes! The database doesn't get involved until you access Repo, so you
can use changesets for casting and filtering as long as you create a map that does define all field names allowed and their data types.

So that's a lot about the Ecto.Changeset module. I use it a lot over at the Flatiron School, where I do work on an app that sends out invoices, and it's been really awesome and useful. But there's plenty more. So if you're also interested in learning more about changesets, definitely check out the following resources.


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Flatiron Labs

We're the technology team at The Flatiron School (a WeWork…

Flatiron Labs

We're the technology team at The Flatiron School (a WeWork company). Together, we're building a global campus for lifelong learners focused on positive impact.

Tracy Lum

Written by

Tracy Lum

Software Engineer // Writer

Flatiron Labs

We're the technology team at The Flatiron School (a WeWork company). Together, we're building a global campus for lifelong learners focused on positive impact.