FLETA’s Block Redesign, LEVEL Tree Validation, and Parallel Sharding

After thoroughly assessing the design of current blockchain networks, the FLETA team identified several key opportunities that could be taken advantage of in order to create more resilient and robust blockchain networks. These changes effectively result in less resource consumption by networks, faster speeds, sustainable data storage, and reduced transaction fees.

One of the major technological innovations undertaken by FLETA is to redesign one of blockchains key fundamental components; the blocks themselves!

Reconstructing FLETA’s Blocks

In FLETA, blocks consist of a block header and a transaction list, with the latter taking up the majority of data, and thus the volume in a block. Reducing transaction sizes in FLETA therefore leads to reduced block sizes, volume, network traffic, and transaction processing times.

This new block structure is accomplished by having “TxId” use block height and transaction location in a block, instead of transaction hash as in Bitcoin. This change results in the TxId function effectively being reduced from 32 bytes down to only 6 bytes.

Following this, the total block size in FLETA is reduced by 43% from 560 bytes to less than 360, resulting in a 1.8x faster processing speed of transactions. This new block design by FLETA is currently undergoing the patenting process with the United States Patent Office (Application Number: 62717703).

Advantages from Block Height and Transaction Location with TxId

The existing verification method of transactions in Bitcoin uses TransactionHash, and this means an Index is required to locate the original transaction to be verified. To process 100 GB of transaction data in Bitcoin requires an index equal to 50 GB! This is an extra 50% of data baggage needed to be lugged around in the network by its miners and nodes.

Because TxId has transaction location specified in FLETA, this eliminates the need for a large index and also alleviates the burden of having to search for a transaction.

Instead, verification is made via use of signatures with the verification of transactions undertaken without the use of TransactionHash. The ability to instantly search for transactions reduces the overall index and data volume for the network.

All together, FLETA’s new block design consists of a block header, transaction list, and a “LEVEL Tree” structure to support parallel processing and Light Nodes, the new LEVEL Tree structure replaces Merkle Tree, which have since been determined to be inefficient.

Replacing Merkle Trees

Merkle trees are used in both Bitcoin and Ethereum and serve as a core fundamental component in blockchain networks.

A “merkle tree” is a structure that allows for the verification of transactions through use of large historical transaction data for given blockchain networks. Verifying a transaction simply means confirming the consistency and legitimacy of transactions throughout a blockchain network.

Verifications done through Merkle Tree structures operate from an inefficient computational structure, and makes verifying and exchanging Light Node data with a simple transaction list difficult. So in order to ensure faster and leaner processing speeds, FLETA has replaced Merkle Tree structures with a new innovative “LEVEL Tree” validation structure.

This change has resulted in a:

  • 5x quicker overall verification process
  • 90% reduction in tree size compared to Merkle Tree structure

LEVEL Tree Structure

FLETA’s LEVEL Tree structure consists of three levels of clusters of 16 transactions that are hashed into one unit, where each level above represents the hashed pair of units from the level below. This structure offers a far more efficient hashing process as each level is simplified to just 16 subunits within each cluster.

This structural change requires far less data storage and computing requirements to verify transactions, meaning less resources are wasted and lower powered computing devices are able to connect to the network and act as a light node.

LEVEL trees saved in light nodes include the root level, level 1, and level 2 where light nodes can request information from full nodes (all levels) when required.

Combining FLETA’s block redesign and new “LEVEL Tree” structure together for transaction verification has resulted in a combined eightfold transaction speed increase in comparison to other blockchain networks.

Parallel Sharding

To further improve scalability, speed, and enable lower fees throughout FLETA’s network, a novel sharding mechanism has been implemented where subchains operate independently from one another such that no data is shared directly between chains.

Two forms of sharding implemented by FLETA include:

  1. Partitioning storage of data where each dApp operates its own subchain; and
  2. Partitioning processing of transactions so that transactions are local to each chain.

This method of sharding enables each chain in the network to operate as a single “mainchain”. And as all independent chains work under the same wallet and address system, users may access any chain in the network by sending or receiving from the same address and key to facilitate seamless transactions between chains. To a user it would seem as if all transactions are being processed under one wallet.

With each chain operating independently and without data being shared between chains under this parallel structure, this eliminates the possibility for double spending to occur.

Through FLETA’s alpha testnet, a single chain was shown to consistently perform at 10,000 TPS. This means the overall transactions per second that could be handled by FLETA’s network could equal 10,000,000 TPS with 1000 subchains operating at the same time. In theory, the total transactions per second that the network may process is limitless as there is no limit to the amount of subchains the network can support.

These three technological innovations introduced by FLETA has resulted in significant leaps when it comes to the processing speed, scalability, fees, and storage of data throughout blockchain networks.

The block redesign, Level Tree structure, and parallel sharding combined with the new Proof of Formulation consensus algorithm and independent multi-chains has resulted in changes to the underlying fundamental structure for FLETA’s blockchain network that will enable it to become the go-to blockchain application platform and market.

If you would like to learn more about FLETA, please visit FLETA’s website and read our white paper, and tech paper.