Frame of Reference
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Frame of Reference

The Mongols Helped Spread a Pandemic to Europe Through Biological Warfare

By throwing dead bodies over the walls of Kaffa

Photo of Jani Beg, the Khan of the Golden Horde. Public Domain

“If this account is correct, Caffa should be recognized as the site of the most spectacular incident of biological warfare ever,” Mark Wheelis, Emerging Infectious Diseases

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Ryan Fan

Ryan Fan

Believer, Baltimore City IEP Chair, and 2:39 marathon runner. Diehard fan of “The Wire.” Support me by becoming a Medium member: https://bit.ly/39Cybb8