Frame of Reference
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Frame of Reference

The Scandal That Led America and France to War

How the XYZ Affair led Adams and Congress to suspend civil liberties in an unprecedented way

A British political cartoon about the XYZ Affair — by SW Fores on Public Domain

It’s quite an understatement that France was quite a hectic place in the 1790s. Not only did it deal with the chaos of the French Revolution, but in 1793, France declared war on Great Britain. The new country of the United States…

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