How we designed page previews for Wikipedia — and what could be done with them in the future

Image by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Today, we released a new feature for Wikipedia’s readers on desktop — page previews. Here’s a few design nuances behind it.

The rabbit hole

People love Wikipedia. People love Wikipedia for specific reasons. Here’s one of the popular ones, as explained by XKCD:

It says “The Problem” but I think he loves it. Image by Randall Monroe/xkcd, CC BY-NC 2.5

We call this the “rabbit-hole” around the halls of the Wikimedia Foundation’s office. (Shameless plug for the Wikipedia Rabbit-hole t-shirt.)

This is one of the most iconic and popular user patterns we see on Wikipedia. People start on one article, and then head somewhere else, and then somewhere else, learning about lots of different topics along the way.

Design is as good what it is optimised for. We design for these readers, optimising not for page views or engagement — but for learning. And it turns out that context is a key part of learning.

Context matters, but context switching is costly

Page previews, as a feature, is a utilitarian interaction pattern that has been around since the invention of Javascript.

Here’s how Twitter uses previews to get context about a user. Screenshot/GIF via Twitter.

It is not a groundbreaking solution for providing context without losing the thread. Yet, even the most basic interaction changes on Wikipedia come with their own unique challenges. Let’s shed some light on why this is a big deal:

A few numbers to help you grok

  • Nearly one quarter of Wikipedia’s traffic comes from clicking on internal blue links. a.k.a going down the rabbit hole
  • Blue links account for 4 billion page views per month
  • more than 10,000 links get hovered each second across all Wikipedias

In other words, blue links are the most frequently-used interactive elements on Wikipedia. This makes messing with or changing any feature related to blue links a bit more… delicate and challenging.

Add value not pain

Modifying such frequent behavior is difficult. We began by using qualitative and quantitative insights to conclude the interaction timeline for showing a preview:

Timeline shows events after a user hovers on a blue link. Graph by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0.

Given Wikipedia’s scale, a minor change in any of these variables could always result in a massive impact on the experiences of the end user as well as on our infrastructure. Using evaluative research, we learned that some people read text online by hovering over sentences making page previews potentially annoying for this audience.

Building in artificial delays before the page preview appears — about 650 milliseconds — allowed us to reduce the number of unwanted previews. We also made it simple to disable this feature without having to jump through hoops.

Representing the context

The next challenge was to represent an article with information that is available and information that is not available. How do you account for unknown content? Well, you design for all the possibilities.

Edge cases, edge cases, and edge cases

I don’t like the term, personally. Mostly because it gets misused to make design decisions. It is even more inaccurate when it comes to designing for Wikipedia.

Wikipedia’s content is written by more than 200,000 humans and bots across 300 languages. It differs in tone, format, availability, level of detail, and subject matter. Everything is an edge case, hence nothing is.

Designing the preview was like playing Tetris without knowing what the next piece is going to be. Here are different variations of previews laid out:

Graphic by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0.

This diverse set of use-cases results in different representations of an article ranging from landscape images, tall portrait previews, right to left previews for links that lead to list of articles. Adjusting line-height for math-related pages on Tamil page previews so the sentence clipping works properly is part of designing page previews.

Graphic by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0. Text and images from the indicated Wikipedia articles in various languages.

Future of page previews

This is just a beginning — page previews open possibilities in multiple areas, as context is becoming more and more important not only on Wikipedia but on the internet in general. (Note that these are just ideas, and are not in active development.)

Support for more types of contents

Currently, previews are meant only for articles but we have built them in a way such that they could be used for different types of content and formats.

Graphic by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0. Text from the indicated pages on Wikimedia wikis.

Power previews for editors

As of now, page previews are designed for readers — but they could be adapted for power editors by hosting comprehensive information and useful actions that are more relevant to editors.

Today, a lot of editors use a tool called Navigation Popups meant for the same purpose. The features from navigation popups can be easily adapted into Page Previews —

Graphic by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0. Text from Mona Lisa.

Wikipedia outside Wikipedia

We call on Wikipedia as second source material. Just like a dictionary is used to explain the meaning of a word while you are reading a book, Wikipedia is often used as a second source to know context for reading even outside of Wikipedia.

Graphic by Nirzar Pangarkar/Wikimedia Foundation, CC BY-SA 3.0. Includes Wikipedia text from hairy-nosed otter, and is based on Jeremy Coles, “Conservation success for otters on the brink,” BBC Earth, 20 June 2017.

Wikipedia previews could be adopted by other publishers as a means to provide quick context around topics.

Wrapping it up

Page previews pave a path for another way to interact with Wikipedia. The reading experience of Wikipedia can be broken down into smaller pieces. We’re looking forward to more ways of moving away from the traditional notion of single monolithic articles towards more modular and contextual learning.

Feel free to provide feedback on our project page.

Thank you!

Nirzar Pangarkar, Design Manager, Audiences Design
Wikimedia Foundation

You can also read this post on the Wikimedia blog.