1549. Nature of mind
When people want to study mind, or thinking, and do so in a reductionistic way that implies, or says, mind is just genes or algorithms or mechanisms, they typically have a view of mind that already contains those elements, and is limited to them.
So challenge. If as it seems all civilizations go through stages of focusing on gods, then heroes, then men, then it must be true that the capacity of mind for each must be present with the other two. that means that modern mind, to be understood, must be understood in a way that at least allows for the gods and heroes as well as men, and to see that the men continually judge themselves as less than full from the vantage point of the other capacities. Any view of mind that does not take on the full scope of thinking is likely to be self serving of some kind of, usually conservative, ideology.
We can add that each of the civilizations is as rational as the others in that the view of the world fits its historical moment.