Covariance and contravariance by example

Jozef Chmelar
Jan 23 · 6 min read

Covariance and contravariance are very spooky words.

I use these words if I want to sound very smart — and it usually works. No one really knows what the hell it is.

As I want to explain this topic as simple as possible (but not simpler) I’ll try to avoid these smart-sounding words.

I’m going to implement a Repository pattern with the use of generics to explain this topic.

I’ll use C# for my examples, it’s pretty similar in languages like Java or Kotlin.

You already know half of it!

Let’s define a few simple classes.

record Person(string Name);
record Employee(string Name) : Person(Name);
record RemoteEmployee(string Name, string location) : Employee(Name);

Create a few employees and put them inside a collection.

IEnumerable<Employee> people = new List<Employee>
new Employee("Andrew"),
new RemoteEmployee("Karen","USA")

Since an Employee is also a Person I should be able to do this.

IEnumerable<Person> people = new List<Employee> // It's not <Employee> anymore.
new Employee("Andrew"),
new RemoteEmployee("Karen","USA")

So if an Employee is also a Person I can use a more generic type on the left side of the assignment. AKA Covariance!

Simple right?

Since I mentioned a generic type let’s make something where we can make use of generics. Let’s save the data in a database.

| Fun fact : Generics were introduced in C# 2.0, released in 2005, along with Visual Studio 200.

Should I use MySQL, Excel, SQL Server, SQLite or Postgres? The answer is — we shouldn’t have to care. All I want to do is insert some data and get it back later. Here a repository pattern comes to rescue!

interface IRepository<T>     // "T" stands for "data of some type"
void Insert(T item); // I want to insert some data.
T Get(string id); // and get it
IEnumerable<T> GetAll(); // back later

I implemented a very simple repository which stores the object in a Json file on a disk. You can see it here.

When you implement a repository like this you encounter a problem while implementing the Insert method.
How to insert the data in such a way that I can retrieve it later?
There's an id in the Get method but under what id would you Insert the data?

You have multiple options here
1. Let a database handle it — The database could generate some Guid (like Mongo) or a relational database could generate a primary key.
2. Use a hash code or a ToString of an object — But you may never get the object back, so never do that.
3. Enforce an Id before it is added to a database.
4. Some other idea.

You’re in charge, not a database or a hash function so I’m going with the option #3.

I want all my persistent objects to implement an Entity interface.

interface Entity { string Id { get; } }record Person(string Name) : Entity { public string Id => Name; } // Name is not the best Id of course.

I also have to enforce the rule on the interface itself.

interface IRepository<T> where T : Entity  // "T" stands for "data of some type" where the data also has an Id.

Now I can store my list of employees in a database!

static void Main(string[] args)
var employeesRepository = new FileRepository<Employee>();
AddEmployees(employeesRepository); // Add a list of employees to a repository
ReadAndPrintRepository(employeesRepository); // Read the repository and print users.
static void AddEmployees(IRepository<Employee> repository)
=> new List<Employee>
new RemoteEmployee("Karen","Usa"),
new Employee("Karen")
static void ReadAndPrintRepository(IRepository<Employee> repository)
=> repository

This all works, which is great. But an Employee is also a Person so I’d like to change make a small change.

static void ReadAndPrintRepository(IRepository<Person> repository)

Suddenly you get an error

cannot convert from 'FileRepository<Employee>' to 'IRepository<Person>'csharp(CS1503)

But why? It works on the example above!

To quote me “So if an Employee is also a Person I can use a more abstract type on the left side of the assignment. AKA Covariance!

What’s the difference? Well if you take a look on the IEnumerable (or Collection in Java) interface it’s defined like this.

public interface IEnumerable<out T> : System.Collections.IEnumerable

The out keyword is crucial here. It says to the compiler - use the type T or a more abstract/derived type. The type T is a covariant parameter. It allows some change, a variance.

But why the out keyword? Why not in or covariant or leave me alone and work plz?

Let’s add an out keyword to our interface and let's see.

Invalid variance: The type parameter 'T' must be contravariantly valid on 'IRepository<T>.Insert(T)'. 'T' is covariant. csharp(CS1961)

(╯°□°)╯︵ ┻━┻


Well. When you specify the out keyword it means that the interface can only OUTPUT the type T. It cannot take an input of type T, like it does in the Insert method.

I’ll remove the Insert method from the IRepository interface and move it to IWriteOnlyRepository. To have some symmetry in the codebase I'll introduce an IReadOnlyRepository and merge them in the IRepository.

interface IWriteOnlyRepository<T>
void Insert(T item);
interface IReadOnlyRepository<out T>
T Get(string id);
IEnumerable<T> GetAll();
interface IRepository<T> : IWriteOnlyRepository<T>, IReadOnlyRepository<T> where T : Entity

Now when you use the IReadOnlyRepository interface as a parameter in the ReadAndPrintRepository method you won't get an error anymore!

┬─┬ノ( º _ ºノ)

static void Main(string[] args)
var employeesRepository = new FileRepository<Employee>();
static void ReadAndPrintRepository(IReadOnlyRepository<Person> repository) => repository.GetAll().ToList().ForEach(Console.WriteLine);static void AddEmployees(IRepository<Employee> repository) => new List<Employee>
new Employee("Bjork"),
new RemoteEmployee("Karen","Usa")

Everything works as expected. Life’s good. But what if I add a special method which will only handle RemoteEmployees?

static void AddRemoteEmployees(IRepository<RemoteEmployee> repository)
//some operations only valid for RemoteEmployee
repository.Insert(new RemoteEmployee("Andrew","Canada"));
repository.Insert(new RemoteEmployee("Carol","UK"));

Unfortunately you’ll get this error

cannot convert from 'FileRepository<Employee>' to IRepository<RemoteEmployee>'

The FileRepository implements the interface IRepository<Employee> so only an Employee can be added into the repository. You can say that is very rigid. It won't allow any variance, therefore it is Invariant.

The IWriteOnlyRepository has currently the same problem as IRepository it does not allow any variance. Since we have an out modifier on the IReadOnlyRepository, don't we have an in modifier we can use?

Yes, we do! When you specify the in keyword it means that the interface can only accept an INPUT of the type T. Since we are only using the type T as an input and we never return in we can mark the input type as contravariant using the in keyword.

interface IWriteOnlyRepository<in T>
void Insert(T item);

The last thing to do is to change the interface in the method. Since IRepository doesn't allow any variance, we have to use a more flexible interface which is the IWriteOnlyRepository. RemoteEmployee is more specific than Employee, but since our IWriteOnlyRepository is marked with an in keyword it doesn't mind more specific types. AKA contravariance.

static void AddRemoteEmployees(IWriteOnlyRepository<RemoteEmployee> repository) => new List<RemoteEmployee>
new RemoteEmployee("Andrew","Canada"),
new RemoteEmployee("Carol","UK")

It works!


When your interface allows you to use a single type, it offers no flexibility, no variance, therefore it’s invariant.

You can go through a list of employees and treat them as Person`s, because they have a common trait - **covariance

You can’t treat the list of employees as a list of managers, but you should be able to add a manager to a list of employees. This way you’re approaching the problem from the opposite (contra) side — contravariance

I hope I made this weird topic a bit more clear!

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