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# The SuperComputers You’ve Probably Never Heard About

## Classical Computers

You’ve heard of Apple, the company. Well, they produce laptops, such as Macbooks (crazy, I know, you totally did not know that and I just dropped a massive knowledge bomb).

• Optimization
• Chemistry — unable to simulate a bunch of molecules and electrons, along with other very very small things
• Exponential Scaling — such as factorials!

## Why Quantum Computers?

Quantum computers work a little differently than classical computers. As previously mentioned, classical computers are only able to hold one position at a time — a 0 or a 1 (called a classical bit). Here’s the best part: quantum computers are able to hold both 0s and 1s (we’ll expand on this later). This concept is known as superposition.

## What is a Qubit?

A qubit is expanded into → quantum bits. They behave sort of like artificial atoms. Qubits talk to other qubits with microwave cables that talk to each other using micro-waves.
Qubits come in quantum computers, just like bits come in classical computers. Quantum computers collapse the superposition into a series of 0s and 1s, more specifically, into probabilities of 0s and 1s. Qubits encode the zero and the one into two distinguishable quantum states. But, because qubits behave quantumly, we can capitalize on the phenomena of “superposition” and “entanglement.”

## What is Superposition?

Superposition is essentially the ability of a quantum system to be in multiple states at the same time — that is, something can be “here” and “there,” or “up” and “down” at the same time. For instance, superposition can mean a qubit can be both a 0 and a 1 simultaneously → resulting in vertical and horizontal polarization. The qubits exist between any probability of 0 and 1.

## What is Entanglement?

Think of this phenomenon as pieces of a puzzle that you’re grouping and joining together based on similarities you find on the puzzle piece itself.

## Processing Data

One petaFLOP this astounding computing speed processes data at one quadrillion (one thousand trillion) calculations per second! For comparison, the human processes speech at around 38 petaFLOPS. The more you think about it, the more you realize how wicked our brain is!

## Qubits: Deeper Look

Although the qubits can exist in any combination of states, when they are measured, they must fall into one of the basis states. All the other information about the state before the information is lost.

# Personal Note

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