Genaro Technical Know-How

All you need to know is down below!

Summary of Waylon Wu’s online full stack engineer’s course @ CSDN

At 8 o’clock on Thursday evening, Genaro Network founder & Jiluo Technology CTO Waylon Wu gave an online course at CSDN, one of China’s largest engineering communities. The topic was ‘The Design of a Public Chain Consensus Mechanism and Governance Structure’. Waylon was able to explain the detailed technical material in one hour, with active responses coming from the group in return. One of the group members even proposed setting up a ‘Waylon Wu fans’ Wechat group.

What did Waylon say that attracted so many fans? Let’s take a look at the livestream summary.

1. Why do we Design Consensus?

The core of the blockchain is a distributed database that needs to meet the CAP theory (Consistency, Availability, and Partial Fault Tolerance). The main purpose of consensus design is to make the whole system work. The complete functionality of any distributed system requires both theoretical support and a central focus. For example, there are significant differences between Bitcoin’s public chain and consortium chains. One emphasizes consistency, and the other places emphasis on usability.

2. How to Design Consensus

In fact, there are only two major categories of blockchain consensus design. One is the Byzantine consensus, and the other is chain consensus (Satoshi consensus). The Byzantine consensus has been studied since the 1980s. The oldest version of this study was mainly applied to older distributed systems such as BFT and PBFT. Among them, PoC (Proof of Concept) has only been done by PBFT consensus around the world. The chain consensus is brought to the entire distributed design process through Bitcoin. The most representative chain consensus is PoW. Because there is no guarantee of consistency, one of the characteristics of the chain consensus is that it often forks. Besides PoW, another type that often gets forked is PoS. Afterwards, someone named BM invented DPoS, which is similar to the two-strata mechanism implemented on PoS.

3. What Kind of Consensus to Choose?

First of all, if you want to design a consensus with high consistency, you will need the Byzantine variety. Second, if you want to design a consensus that requires high usability, you need to design a chain. What does it mean to have “high usability”? It means that TPS must be high. A public chain is a better test case for designing chain consensus. Among them, the question to be considered is whether there is a fork in the consistency verification.

The chain consensus, also known as the Nakamoto consensus, was created by Satoshi Nakamoto. Its design is meant to prevent the fork. The starting point of consensus is achieved through proof. The current mainstream consensus can be divided into PoW and PoS. PoW is justified by the amount of work that can be verified. Let’s talk about PoW design issues first. First of all, PoW needs an ASIC. If it is compromised, the cost will increase indefinitely. A small number of people with hardware will have a great advantage. Existing large mines are free to attack a poorly designed new PoW chain.

There are two major problems in PoS design. First, it does not bear any benefits. If the verifier casts several conflicting blocks that differ from the height of the devised block without any cost impact, the verifier can effectively destroy consensus security. Second, long-range attacks. A very basic problem arises from this. Because this means that an attacker can create a fork from an unspecified long distance without fear of being removed. After the 2/3 verifier cancels the stake, they can hostilely create the second chain containing the past verifiers. Then they are free to create additional transactions.

Regarding the two major issues just mentioned, in Genaro we use additional information related to storage to ensure that both types of fork can be resolved. Genaro uses SPoR to assist PoS, ensuring high concurrency and storage while maintaining low consumption.

The last aspect is the role of structure governance. Structure governance plays a transitional role in the consensus. If there is only consensus but no dual-strata mechanism, the additional information of PoS cannot be selected. Here there are differences in the degree of difficulty and implementation for both on-chain and off-chain governance. Onchain governance is more like a punishment, and offchain governance requires voting. The main onchain-governance projects are Bitcoin, ethereum, Zilliqa and Genaro Network. The main offchain-governance projects are EOS, VeChain Foundation and Tron Foundation.

When doing the offchain governance, the PoS stake structure design needs to be considered. Stake itself is data in a distributed database. Pure stake requires extra information to help confirm consensus. Finally, Genaro uses storage as an assisting consensus approach to provide an original design structure.

The Genaro Network is the first smart data ecosystem with a Dual-Strata Architecture, integrating a public blockchain with decentralized storage. Genaro pioneered the combination of SPoR (Sentinel Proof of Retrievability) with PoS (Proof of Stake) to form a new consensus mechanism, ensuring stronger performance, better security and a more sustainable blockchain infrastructure. Genaro provides developers with a one-stop platform to deploy smart contracts and store the data needed by DAPPs simultaneously. Genaro Network’s mission is to ensure the secure migration of the core Internet infrastructure to the blockchain.

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Genaro Network (GNX)

Genaro Network (GNX)

First smart data ecosystem with a Dual-Strata Architecture. See full blog at Smart Data Ecosystem Publication or https://medium.com/genaro-network