I always have to implement Singleton Pattern in my projects, but in Golang there are some peculiarities that we have to take care of. In this article, I will present two ways to implement Singleton using Golang, the “Not Thread Safe” form and the “Thread Safe” form. The goal is to present in a practical and technical way the forms of implementation and when we have to implement the singleton patterns.
Problem to be solved
We have to open a connection to the database and keep it in a single instance so we do not overload the database and have problems or errors with the limit of concurrent connections exceeded, and of course, of optimizing our code. We know that a connection is very costly computationally.
Pooling natively, then we need to control all the connections that our application will open to communicate with it, so in every action we execute, be it a select, delete, insert or update, we need a connection we will use the singleton pattern in the memory of atomic form. Examples of Singleton async and sync connections.
Before we implement our solution using Singleton Pattern to solve the problem of connection pooling, let’s look at some other examples of the need to use the singleton pattern.
Here are some examples of ways to try to protect our global variable.
Protecting Global Variable Example 1
Protecting Global Variable Example 2
Protecting Global Variable Example 3
Above we show three ways to protect our global variable “instance”, for synchronous solutions example 1 will already work, for asynchronous solutions example 2 and 3 are the most indicated being that example 3 is the best solution to protect from “race condition“ by ensuring that the instance is declared a single time by becoming atomic.
The purpose of the article is to show exactly how to try to protect the global variable, in Golang we have several ways of doing this.
Below are a few more examples to complement the reasoning, showing how we instantiate our singleton, be it synchronously or asynchronously using goroutine.
Examples of how to instantiate our Singleton
The code below is a good example of openings for multiple connections in a synchronous way, depending on how we implement our connection instance the bank would not support.
Now we will see an example of opening connections asynchronously using goroutine. We made hundreds of goroutines and thousands of concurrent connections in our example below, works 100% without crashing and or bugging the amount of database connections.
Goroutines and the Singleton Pattern
When we think of possible solutions for the implementation of the singleton pattern using Golang, we bump into the Goroutines it will be responsible for providing our code to execute asynchronously and concurrently and when we use Goroutine in our application our whole way of thinking and implementing changes, that is is no longer a synchronous application and because of this we have to think of the Golang way of being.
Goroutines is a powerful resource and when used correctly it becomes a strong ally to fight the day-to-day battles. Every time we implement codes that use competition we have some known scenarios that we have to deal with, program scope, global variables, locations, parameter passing, pointers all this has to be handled so we can work with competition in a correct and optimized way .
A good example of possible problems using competition is the use of global variables. Due to the goroutines our implementation of the Singleton Pattern and our possible solutions will be written to accept the use of competition. Let’s write our code using good programming practices to try to mitigate the possible stealth bugs that may occur in runtime of your program written in Golang.
200 goroutines being initialized
In our example below we are creating 200 goroutines and putting all of them in competition and ten thousand interactions are being made in our database ie “select email from login where id =?”.
Good understanding of the goroutines will help us write better and more powerful codes in Golang, this I have no doubt. In a next article we will describe some cases using goroutines, I am eager to write about Goroutines and show how we solved some of our problems in the company.
The subject about Singleton Pattern is so interesting that I had to do a much deeper research on the subject before writing this article and as I use a lot in my day to day I decided to collaborate a little showing some important points of this pattern and why a lot of the times it is considered an Anti Pattern. Describing the technical details in the article we clearly notice several good practices that we can use on our day when we are coding in Golang, good practices, clean implementation forms, less complex and less costly implementations and with higher performance.
What is Singleton Pattern ?
The transcript of what is a Singleton Pattern would be: “Singleton is a software design standard. This standard guarantees the existence of only one instance of a class, while maintaining a global point of access to its object.”
Singleton is a design pattern that restricts instantiation to an object, we have to ensure that this occurs only once.
Basically singleton is a way to use global variables. We know how dangerous the use of global variables is, our code is vulnerable to the access of the global variable or in any part of the system we can change its value. So when we try to debug our program it will not be an easy task to figure out which code path leads to the current state, which is why I do not consider Singleton Pattern an Anti Pattern, but a way to protect global variables.
However, the problem with Singleton using competition that will be our goal, in a multi-threaded environment, initialization must be protected to avoid reboot, atomically.
The Singleton Pattern is a feature derived from the object oriented paradigm, so how will we implement Golang if it does not have OO support?
To answer this question we have to understand that Object Oriented Programming is a concept and can be implemented in any programming language even though it is of other paradigms. It is clear that the level of abstraction and difficulty becomes an arduous task greatly increasing the level of complexity of the code depending on the language, our intention is purely didactic in order to better understand the proposed scenario when we speak in singleton pattern.
go run -race singleton.go
It executes all the codes using -race as parameter: go run -race ..
The “-race detector” is a feature we have available in Golang to detect improper accesses in memory when we are using competition in our application. It is possible to generate report that contains stack traces for conflicting accesses, as well as piles in which the goroutines involved were created, I will soon create an article addressing exactly this subject and we will talk about “Profiling” in Go.
Below are the ways we can make the “-race” call.
$ go test -race seupkg // to test the package
$ go run -race seusrc.go // to run the source file
$ go build -race seucmd // to build the command
$ go install -race seupkg // to install the package
Singleton Pattern in Golang
The solution presented below would be ideal if our application were synchronous, and the problem would be solved with code below, but as our goal is to implement using competition the solution below is far from ideal.
Let’s check the code below and start our implementation possibilities:
In the above implementation, we have our first approach implementing Singleton in Golang and with goroutines to simultaneously run our Singleton.
The problem visible in this code is that several goroutine routines could evaluate the first check and all would create a singleton instance and replace one another. There is no guarantee of which instance will be returned in the code above and other additional operations on the instance may be inconsistent with developer expectations and stealth problems may occur at run time.
Too bad this approach, several very subtle errors can occur, if references to the singleton instance are being maintained through code, there is a great chance that there are potentially multiple instances of the type with different states, generating potential code behaviors. It also becomes a real nightmare during debugging and it becomes really difficult to detect the bug, since at debug time nothing seems to be wrong due to runtime breaks, minimizing the potential of a “Not Thread Safe” execution, obfuscating totally the problem for who is coding.
Locks with Mutex
In the code below is a poor solution for attempting to solve the “Thread Safe” problem. In fact, this solves the “Thread Safe” problem, but creates other serious potential problems. It introduces a containment in the goroutines executing an aggressive blocking of the whole function, let’s check the code below:
The “Thread Safe” issue has been resolved with the above implementation using sync.Mutex where the Lockdown occurs before creating the Singleton instance. The big problem with this approach is excessive blocking even when it would not be necessary to do so in case the instance has already been created and should simply have returned the singleton instance. If our program is written to become highly concurrent, this can generate a bottleneck, since only one goroutine routine can get the singleton instance at a time, making it our slowest solution.
Let’s check another solution, because it is not our best approach above.
Check-Lock-Check in Go
One way to improve and ensure a minimum lock and still be safe for the goroutine is to use the pattern called “Check-Lock-Check” when acquiring locks. But you have to use Mutex with atomic so it is not “the tread safe” otherwise it will become a “the thread not safe”. We use this same Patter in C and C ++. The pattern works with the idea of checking first, to minimize any aggressive blocking, since an IF statement is less expensive than locking. Next time, we would have to wait and get the exclusive lock so that only one execution is inside that block at a single time. With the first scan and exclusive lock, there may be another goroutine that has the lock, so we would need to double-check inside the lock to avoid replacing the instance with another. Check the code below:
The above approach is the best so far, but still not perfect. There is no atomic check on the storage state of the instance. Taking all technical considerations into account, this is still not perfect. But it is much better than the initial approaches.
Using the sync/atomic package, we can load and set atomically a flag that indicates whether or not we initialize our instance.
Check the code below:
The sync/atomic library allows us to flag and store content securely and ensuring its uniqueness, much like sync.Map, where it is storing in a storage and accepting competition in its implementation. The problem we had to use more functionality, more feature and a little slower implementation sequentially.
sync.Once clean and powerful
We have the type “Once” in the sync library, remembering that this native library in Golang is very powerful and we have to exploit it as much as we can, the sync.Once object will perform an action exactly once and not more, it was what was missing for our code to get even more powerful and clean.
With this approach and proposed scenario our code in addition to getting cleaner was much better, the sync.Once function guarantees the uniqueness of our instance, our code can now have 100 goroutines or more according to its need, puts them in competition not we will have Thread Safe problems or aggressive checking. A simple and secure way to write the Golang code for implementing Singleton Pattern.
init () Another approach
Another valid approach is to use init( ), it runs only once and is called before the maim function. Check the code below:
But this approach is a disadvantage when we use init( ). Note clearly that it is not secure, nothing prevents you from making a direct call in the “Connect” function as occurred in line #47, in addition there is a limitation in the use of init in relation to its load time and the most important in Golang we can have multiple init( ) running not only on one file or package but on multiple, and there is a running order between them.
The init( ) function does not accept arguments nor returns any value. In contrast to our approach using sync.Once, the init ( ) identifier is not declared, so it can not be referenced.
The best scenario is to write codes that do not depend on the boot order, in previous versions of golang there were some complaints and several problems reported, do not write codes in an init ( ) that you need guarantees of execution at any given time. The solution when it needs explicit assurance is to write explicit calls.
For more details have a page only of this in Golang https://golang.org/doc/effective_go.html#initialization, it is worth the detailed reading about init( ), it is a powerful and robust implementation in the current versions of Golang but always it’s good to stay tuned.
Variable receiving function
Another valid approach is to use a global variable to get the function in a global scope, we know that in Golang the variables are assigned and declared before the init ( ) and main function call, so in this approach the method returns exactly one instance. Check the code below:
This approach is flawed because nothing guarantees that the function will be called again in some part of the code, as occurred in line #25 the function was called again, in line #30 is made the instance of our singleton, but nothing guarantees this uniqueness .
The ideal is undoubtedly the use of sync.Once that guarantees us the uniqueness and that is “Thread Safe” guaranteeing that a “Race Condition” does not occur, it only allows the function to be executed only once Golang flexibilized and automated all the complexity we would have in other languages if we were to work with competition and simultaneity. Golang really became powerful in these approaches, making it simple to implement and understand.
When we talk about competition our whole way of thinking and coding solutions using Golang changes drastically. There are several scenarios that we need to apply standards and practices in our projects to take full advantage of the power that Golang offers.
Every project I participate in becomes almost a “mantra” among development teams doing various tests and reviews to make the most of what the language provides. The deeper we study, the more we discover that we know little about language. The cool of everything is the challenge, when working with goroutines in Golang we need to understand how soon the features and what it is possible to do, behaviors, security of goroutines are all essential to improve our code more and more.
If you are interested in accompanying or exchanging ideas be they at the beginner, intermediate or hardcore level on the Golang language there are some Golang groups spread on the internet two of them in particular whenever possible I am present is the one from https://t.me / go_br (GoBr) and gophers.slack.com, active communities using Golang, are always sharing ideas, projects, vacancies and doubts all the time and at all times we are relearning.
I hope I have helped to clarify some doubts about using Singleton Pattern, using global variables, goroutines, sync.Once, Init, mutex, and several other important technical points covered in the article.
Below are all the source codes that we use as an example in the article if you are interested in downloading and testing.
Source Codes and Article Examples
I would like to thank some colleagues who helped in the review of this article to maintain the quality of the content and leave it dense without getting complex and jet. Thank you: Joelson , Marco Paganinii, Francisco Oliveira
In the next article that is in the oven will be about lambdas, like writing lambdas in Golang, it will be another very interesting challenge, which I am preparing.
Who liked it and got to the end leaves a stick there … Thanks 🤘🤓