Mokhles El Heni
Mar 3, 2018 · 3 min read

0- Terminologies

Resource is an object or representation of some information, which has some associated data with it and there can be set of methods to operate on it. E.g:

  • Animals, schools and employees are resources
  • Delete, add, update are the operations to be performed on these resources.

Collections are set of resources, e.g Companies is the collection of Company resource.

URL (Uniform Resource Locator) is a path through which a resource can be located and some actions can be performed on it.

1- Use nouns but no verbs

Do not use verbs like this:


Better to use nouns:

GET /cars => get all cars

POST /cars => create new car

DELETE /cars/:id => delete a car

PUT /cars/:id => update a car

PATCH /cars/:id => partially update a car

GET /cars/:id => get a car

2- Don’t use GET + URL params to update records

Don’t use API endpoints like this GET /users/711?activate or event like this GET /users/711/activate.

Use PATCH to and change the attribute activated in resource “user”.

3- Don’t mix singular and plural nouns

Keep it simple and use only plural nouns for all resources.

/car => /cars

4- Use sub-resources for relations

For example if a user has multiple cars use sub-resources format:

/users/771/cars => Returns a list of cars of user 771

5- Use HTTP headers for serialization formats

Both, client and server, need to know which format is used for the communication. The format has to be specified in the HTTP-Header.

Content-Type defines the request format.
Accept defines a list of acceptable response formats.

6- Provide filtering, sorting, field selection and paging for collections


Use a unique query parameter for all fields or a query language for filtering.

GET /cars?color=red Returns a list of red cars


GET /cars?sort=-manufactorer => This returns a list of cars sorted by descending manufacturers

Field selection

GET /cars?fields=manufacturer,model,id,color=> display just a few attributes (manufacturer,model,id,color)


GET /cars?offset=10&limit=5 returns car 10 to 15

7- Handle Errors with HTTP status codes

It is hard to work with an API that ignores error handling. Pure returning of a HTTP 500 with a stacktrace is not very helpful.

200 — OK — Eyerything is working
201 — OK — New resource has been created
204 — OK — The resource was successfully deleted

304 — Not Modified — The client can use cached data

400 — Bad Request — The request was invalid or cannot be served. The exact error should be explained in the error payload. E.g. „The JSON is not valid“
401 — Unauthorized — The request requires an user authentication
403 — Forbidden — The server understood the request, but is refusing it or the access is not allowed.
404 — Not found — There is no resource behind the URI.
422 — Unprocessable Entity — Should be used if the server cannot process the enitity, e.g. if an image cannot be formatted or mandatory fields are missing in the payload.

500 — Internal Server Error — API developers should avoid this error. If an error occurs in the global catch blog, the stracktrace should be logged and not returned as response.

8- Use error payloads

"errors": [
"userMessage": "Sorry, the requested resource does not exist",
"internalMessage": "No car found in the database",
"code": 34,
"more info": ""

9- Documentation

An API is only as good as its documentation. The docs should be easy to find and publicly accessible. Most developers will check out the docs before attempting any integration effort. When the docs are hidden inside a PDF file or require signing in, they’re not only difficult to find but also not easy to search through.

10- Version your API

/api/v1, /api/v2

Make the API Version mandatory and do not release an unversioned API. Use a simple ordinal number and avoid dot notation such as 2.5.


GoMyCode Community.

Mokhles El Heni

Written by

Software Engineer — creator of



GoMyCode Community.

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