What is a Full-stack Developer?

In this article, we’ll go the various concerns a Full-stack should have knowledge of, the and technologies they include.

Published in
7 min readMay 25, 2019


Photo by Eaters Collective on Unsplash

A Full-stack developer is a technical person who has the potential to work on both front end and back end of a software application. These developers possess a deep understanding of technologies used to implement different components and layers in a software product.

Full-stack Developers should have an understanding of the following:

  1. Presentation Layer
    The layer deals with the front end part of the application, i.e., user interfaces
  2. Business Logic Layer
    The business logic layer deals with the back end part of the application, for e.g. data validation, connectivity between the user interface and web.
  3. Database Layer
    This layer deals with the database connectivity with the application’s front end.
Image reference Excellentwebworld

Being a Full-stack developer does not mean you should be master in all these technologies. Instead, it means a Full-stack development professional should know how to work on the client as well as server sides and what’s happening in the app when developing it.

Businesses nowadays prefer to invest in Full-stack development services rather than hiring multiple resources to build a software application.

“All-singing, all-dancing technical wizard.”
- Ian Peters-Campbell

Image source learntek.org

Front End Technologies

As the demand for digital solutions is increasing at a rapid pace, front end technologies have also become more important in product development. Rather than focusing on only product features, there is a need to consider the user experience while analyzing the success of a product.

Front end technologies are used for managing the user-facing components of the software product. A Full-stack developer should know how the software application should look like and what should be the flow of an app.


HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language used for creating web apps and web pages. CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets that describe how HTML events should be displayed on the screen. Also, CSS can manage the layout of multiple web pages at once.


Bootstrap is an open-source CSS framework which can manage the creation of responsive websites and applications. Using CSS and Javascript based design templates, Bootstrap saves developers from a lot of coding efforts.


AngularJS is a javascript based open source framework that can address several challenges encountered in building single-page applications.


React is a javascript library used for developing user interfaces. It can enable high-performance rendering on both the server’s and the client’s side.

Backend Technologies

Backend is the part of a software application that you cannot see. The backend of app deals with organizing and storing of data and ensures that everything runs robustly on the client side.

Backend is responsible for interacting with the front end to receive and send information to be displayed on the web app. Whether you fill a form on the app, request to buy an item or save an item to the card, the app’s front end sends a request to the server which fetches information and displays it.


PHP is a general-purpose programming language used for the development of websites and web apps. Mainly focused on server-side scripting, PHP allows developers to do what other CGI programs can do. For example, generating dynamic page content, collecting form data or sending and receiving cookies.


Java is an object-oriented language that can work on multiple platforms including Windows, Linux, MAC and more. The language can be used for building mobile apps, web apps, desktop apps, games, database connection, web servers, and application servers.


Python is a high level and interpreted a programming language that can be used to create web apps and connect to database systems. As compared to other programming languages, it allows developers to write code with fewer lines. Also, the syntax is somewhat similar to the English language, which is easier to understand.


.NET is an open-source cross-platform used by developers for building web apps, mobile apps, desktop apps, microservices, gaming apps, and IoT apps. A developer should understand C#, Visual Basic or F# programming languages to build .NET apps.


NodeJS is a javascript runtime, designed to create scalable network applications. It is an open source server environment that can run on different platforms such as Linux, Mac OS X, Linux, Unix and more.


Go is an open source Google’s general-purpose programming language used for building efficient and simple to use software applications.

Image source: Onemonth


Most software products require a database for storing the data. To be a Full-stack developer, an individual needs to understand one or two databases and know how to interact with it.


MySQL is an open-source RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) that uses SQL for adding, accessing and managing content in the database.


MongoDB is a document-oriented cross-platform database system which is a NoSQL database. Offering high performance and availability and scalability, the coding in MongoDB is done using C++ programming language.


PostgreSQL is an open-source RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) that is capable of handling workloads starting from single-machine apps to data warehousing or web services with a number of concurrent users.

SQL Server

SQL Server is a relational database management system that stores and fetches data as requested by software applications which can either run on the same system or another system across the network.


DevOps word is a combination of two words, “development” and “operations.” It is a set of software development practices that collaborate development and operations team to deploy code to production faster in a repeatable way.

This technique allows developers to engage in the entire development process of a software application from design to development. It helps in improving the speed of organizations to deliver digital solutions and applications.

As a Full-stack developer, an individual should have an in-depth understanding of DevOps lifecycle and how it is different from the traditional development process.

Image Source: LeewayHertz

Understanding of horizontal concerns within the application

Request/Response Tracing

Request/response tracing allows the developers to identify and examine what happens with a specific request on the software application.

File Storage

File storage system manages the storing of data in a hierarchical structure. All the data is stored in files and folders and is presented to the system retrieving it and the system storing it in the same format. A Full-stack developer should understand different types of file storage services including Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure, AWS and more.


When it comes to developing any software application, security is considered as a crucial factor to ensure that the application is secure and does not lack security standards. Being a Full-stack developer, an individual should have a good knowledge of encryption, public and private key cryptography, SHA, decryption and more security standards.


Logging is a practice of keeping records of processes, data input and output and application actions. It is something that many developers ignore while developing a software product. A Full-stack developer should know how to create a log file and store logs in it.

Understanding of Compliances

A software application has to deal with different types of data including personal, financial, audit, transactional and sensitive data. The classification and identification of the data are essential activities of software development. Also, there is a need to protect the data against any attack. Adding regulatory compliances to the data is an integral part of meeting the business requirements.

Therefore, a Full-stack developer should also have a better understanding of the compliances and regulations.


HIPAA compliance stands for Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act which ensures security and privacy for safeguarding medical records. A Full-stack developer should be responsible for adding HIPAA compliance to healthcare apps and how to make it HIPAA compliant.


PCI DSS stands for Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard which is used for maintaining the compliance in apps that manage credit cards from card schemes such as Visa, Discover, American Express and MasterCard. A developer should understand the requirements of PCI DSS to make a payment app compliant and regulated.


Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) compliance defines a framework to enhance computer and network security within the US Federal Government and its contractors and affiliates. A developer needs to focus on FISMA standard to improve the security of software applications.

Understanding of the above skills and technologies can make you a qualified Full-stack developer. At LeewayHertz, we have a team of Full-stack developers who have the potential to build a digital solution which is tailored as per the client’s needs.

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