Concrete Concerns: Reimagining Cement Production in an Age of Emissions

Amish Chadha
Helpful Engineering
3 min readAug 28, 2023
Photo by uve sanchez on Unsplash

For every skyscraper touching the clouds and highways connecting cities, there’s an unsung hero: cement. This binder forms the backbone of our urban jungles. But like many great tales, this one comes with a shadowy side. Cement production, which is pivotal to the creation of concrete, is a leading contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, accounting for about 8% of global CO2 emissions. But what if there was a way to keep our cities growing while giving our planet a break?

The Challenge: The Carbon Cost of Cement

To understand the depth of the problem, we first need to look at how traditional cement, specifically Portland cement, is made. The process involves:

  1. Mining and Preparing Raw Materials: Limestone, primarily made of calcium carbonate, is extracted, often having detrimental impacts on local ecosystems.
  2. Heating in a Kiln: The limestone is then heated to around 2,642 degrees Fahrenheit (1,450 degrees Celsius) to produce clinker, releasing CO2 both from the burning of fossil fuels and the transformation of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide.
  3. Grinding: Once cooled, the clinker is ground with a bit of gypsum to produce the grey powder we know as cement.

The glaring issue here is the sheer amount of CO2 released, particularly during the kiln phase. This process, intrinsic to traditional cement production, has consequences for our environment, contributing significantly to global warming.

The Opportunity: Building a Green Alternative

The challenge is clear. Yet, in the face of adversity, innovation thrives. The vision is to produce cement that’s not only strong and durable but also environmentally friendly.

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS): While not a direct alternative, CCS offers a way to trap up to 90% of the CO2 emissions produced from the use of fossil fuels in electricity generation and industrial processes, preventing CO2 from entering the atmosphere. Some cement plants are already experimenting with CCS, capturing emissions and either storing or reusing them.
  2. Alternative Binders: Scientists and companies worldwide are racing to find or create a binder with the strength of cement but without the environmental cost. Fly ash, slag, and natural pozzolans are already being used as partial substitutes, helping reduce emissions.
  3. Novel Techniques: Approaches such as using algae to bind with the calcium in cement or replacing parts of limestone with abundant materials that have lower carbon footprints, like clay, are being explored. Each method offers the promise of greener cement, without compromising on the integrity of the end product.

Case Studies: Ground-breaking Approaches in Cement Production

Europe: Sweden’s Low-Carbon Mission

Sweden has taken a proactive stance. A cement plant in Slite has embarked on an ambitious project aiming to capture up to 1.8 million tonnes of CO2 annually by 2030. This undertaking would mark a milestone, making it the world’s largest CCS facility. Besides, Swedish companies are also at the forefront of researching alternative binders, working on producing carbon-neutral cement.

Asia: India’s Green Cement Drive

India, the world’s second-largest cement producer, has an enormous stake in this challenge. Many Indian cement companies are mixing fly ash (a byproduct of coal combustion) and slag (a byproduct of steel production) with clinker, reducing the amount of CO2-intensive clinker required. Additionally, researchers at the Indian Institute of Technology have been delving into using bacteria to produce bio-cement, a method that could revolutionize the industry.

Conclusion: A Concrete Future?

The path to an eco-friendly cement alternative is riddled with scientific, logistical, and economic challenges. But the stakes — our planet’s health — have never been higher. As the case studies underscore, there’s a global momentum building. Researchers are inching closer to groundbreaking solutions that could redefine our urban landscapes.

In this endeavour, collaboration will be the key. By pooling resources, sharing knowledge, and driving investment in green technologies, we can ensure that the cities of tomorrow stand tall, not just in their majestic skylines, but in their commitment to the Earth. The dream? A world where every building, bridge, and road is a testament to humanity’s ingenuity and its pledge to protect our shared home.



Amish Chadha
Helpful Engineering

Industry and supply chain sensei. Passionate about engineering design and product innovation. Crafting tech’s next chapter with efficient knowledge transfer.