Git — The Simple Guide


Download git for OSX

Download git for Windows

Download git for Linux


create a new directory, open it and perform a
 git init
 to create a new git repository.


create a working copy of a local repository by running the command
 git clone /path/to/repository
 when using a remote server, your command will be
 git clone username@host:/path/to/repository


your local repository consists of three “trees” maintained by git. the first one is your Working Directory which holds the actual files. the second one is the Index which acts as a staging area and finally theHEAD which points to the last commit you’ve made.


You can propose changes (add it to the Index) using
 git add <filename>
 git add *
 This is the first step in the basic git workflow. To actually commit these changes use
 git commit -m "Commit message"
 Now the file is committed to the HEAD, but not in your remote repository yet.


Your changes are now in the HEAD of your local working copy. To send those changes to your remote repository, execute
 git push origin master
 Change master to whatever branch you want to push your changes to.

If you have not cloned an existing repository and want to connect your repository to a remote server, you need to add it with
 git remote add origin <server>
 Now you are able to push your changes to the selected remote server


Branches are used to develop features isolated from each other. Themaster branch is the “default” branch when you create a repository. Use other branches for development and merge them back to the master branch upon completion.

create a new branch named “feature_x” and switch to it using
 git checkout -b feature_x
 switch back to master
 git checkout master
 and delete the branch again
 git branch -d feature_x
 a branch is not available to others unless you push the branch to your remote repository
 git push origin <branch>


to update your local repository to the newest commit, execute
 git pull
 in your working directory to fetch and merge remote changes.
 to merge another branch into your active branch (e.g. master), use
 git merge <branch>
 in both cases git tries to auto-merge changes. Unfortunately, this is not always possible and results in conflicts. You are responsible to merge those conflicts manually by editing the files shown by git. After changing, you need to mark them as merged with
 git add <filename>
 before merging changes, you can also preview them by using
 git diff <source_branch> <target_branch>


it’s recommended to create tags for software releases. this is a known concept, which also exists in SVN. You can create a new tag named 1.0.0by executing
 git tag 1.0.0 1b2e1d63ff
 the 1b2e1d63ff stands for the first 10 characters of the commit id you want to reference with your tag. You can get the commit id by looking at the…


in its simplest form, you can study repository history using.. git log
 You can add a lot of parameters to make the log look like what you want. To see only the commits of a certain author:
 git log --author=bob
 To see a very compressed log where each commit is one line:
 git log --pretty=oneline
 Or mabe you want to see an ASCII art tree of all the branches, decorated with the names of tags and branches:
 git log --graph --oneline --decorate --all
 See only which files have changed:
 git log --name-status
 These are just a few of the possible parameters you can use. For more, see git log --help


In case you did something wrong (which for sure never happens ;) you can replace local changes using the command
 git checkout -- <filename>
 this replaces the changes in your working tree with the last content in HEAD. Changes already added to the index, as well as new files, will be kept.

If you instead want to drop all your local changes and commits, fetch the latest history from the server and point your local master branch at it like this
 git fetch origin
 git reset --hard origin/master


built-in git GUI
 use colorful git output
 git config color.ui true
 show log on just one line per commit
 git config format.pretty oneline
 use interactive adding
 git add -i





Originally published at Ibexoft.