How to do tackle Gender-based Violence
How to do tackle Gender-based Violence
Gender-based violence (GBV), or violence against women and girls, is considered a global epidemic that affects one in three women at some point in life. An estimated 736 million women experience at least one intimate violence (IPV) and / or intimate violence. The international community has long recognized the seriousness of the problem. In 1995, the Beijing Declaration and the Code of Conduct called for the elimination of violence against women. Ten years later, in 2015, the United Nations adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. This included the global goal of eliminating “all forms of violence against women and girls in the public and private spheres.” The international community has long recognized the seriousness of this problem. In 1995, the Beijing Declaration and the Code of Conduct called for the elimination of violence against women. In 2016, World Health Assembly Resolution 69 called for a global action plan to strengthen the role of health systems in a national multi-sectoral response, especially to combat interpersonal violence against women and young girls. However, despite all these obligations, 49 countries have not yet adopted formal domestic violence policies. This violence has serious short-term and long-term consequences for women’s health and well-being, but disproportionately affects women in low- and middle-income countries. 4,444 women aged 1,549 in the least developed countries have a lifetime prevalence of domestic violence of 37%. The risk for young women (1524) is even higher. One in four women who have ever had a relationship faces some form of violence. Indeed, domestic violence is a widespread public health problem that women face in different ways in different parts of the world. For example, in the United Kingdom, a 2020 crime investigation reported a 9% increase in domestic violence-related crimes compared to 2019. 9 In the United States (US), the number of women reporting domestic violence has increased by 42% since 2016. The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women in 1993 describes “gender-based violence” as “acts that cause or may cause physical, sexual, or psychological harm or distress to women (of such acts). Includes threats) or enforced. In India, 30% of women experience domestic violence at least once in old age, and about 4% of pregnant women experience violence from her spouse during pregnancy. This paper focuses on domestic violence. This is the most common form of gender-based violence against women. In this paper, “domestic violence” refers to any form of female that causes or may cause physical or psychological harm or distress within the home of the couple or in an intimate relationship. Defines violence (physical, sexual, psychological and verbal). Forced or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether in threat of such conduct, public or private life. Often used interchangeably with IPV. In India, 30% of women have experienced domestic violence at least once since they were young, and about 4% of pregnant women have experienced violence from her spouse during pregnancy. This paper explores the life-course link between domestic violence and women’s sexual and reproductive health. Existing literature shows that there is a significant link between domestic violence and poor health and well-being of children giving birth who must be cared for not only by women themselves but also by social norms. .. In fact, the effects of violence against women have serious demographic consequences, including reduced educational background and reduced income potential for the younger generation. A 2017 study in India, Nepal and Bangladesh found that gender-based violence is a risk factor for unwanted pregnancy in adolescent and young adult married women. Studies in various countries also suggest a moderate to strong positive association between IPV and clinical depression. These analyzes show that women exposed to the violence of their intimate partners have a 23-fold increased risk of major depressive disorder and a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in the symptoms of depression and the risk of postpartum depression. I understand. These women reported increased episodes of anxiety and depression and were at increased risk of low birth weight infants, preterm births, and neonatal death. Studies in Bangladesh and Nepal show a link between violence and poor nutrition, increased stress and poor self-care in women. In a 2005 study in the United States, South Asian women reported that domestic violence reduced sexual independence and increased the risk of unwanted pregnancies. Many were suffering from abortion. A recent study of women in the United States, India, Brazil, Tanzania, Spain, Sweden, Norway, Australia and Hong Kong found that domestic violence was associated with an increased risk of shortened breastfeeding periods. rice field. Studies in Bangladesh and Nepal show a link between violence and poor nutrition, increased stress and poor self-care in women. In Bangladesh, demographic health surveys also show failure to thrive in children of women experiencing domestic violence. In India, domestic violence has been shown to impair early childhood growth and nutrition. Another analysis of data from Pakistan showed a significant increase in underweight, stunting, and wasting among female children exposed to domestic violence. Therefore, there is no lack of evidence of a direct causal link between domestic violence and the growth and development of children .
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