Just imagine, this morning, you buy your favorite chocolate and try to tear off a thin piece of that chocolate plastic paper wrapped around it. What a surprise you could not tear up that cover. You give it to your friend and tell him to try, but he too could not split the chocolate wrapper. Trying to take a needle and put a hole in it means the needle tip will not penetrate.
You go to a factory and put a sharp needle in that card with a pressure of 2000 kg, and you can’t even pierce it.
Are you shocked right now? There are still a lot of miracles going to surprise you.
The tip of the pencil we use is skinny and easily broken. Its name is Graphite. (‘Graphene’ above is Graphite) they make it from carbon atoms. Then there is the diamond we use, and we make it also of carbon, so we cannot scratch it very hard.
If it makes both of the same carbon sources, why is one simple and the other strong?
Because the carbon atom structure in both is different, for example, in a diamond, one carbon atom is bound to the next four atoms. They intertwine it with an infinite 3D structure (tetrahedrons form.)
This graphene is a magnificent substance. It is 200 times as stable as steel. It is the most challenging object ever measured by man. Yes, it is more vital than a diamond. Its heat transfer capacity is twice that of a diamond.
Its electrical conductivity is 13 times greater than that of the best-known conductor, copper.
Its electron speed is 100 times faster than silicon in the electronic devices we know. It weighs many times less than plastic. It is an almost invisible ‘transparent’ object, as it can absorb only 2.3% of light reflection.
Strange things do not stop here. It is not a metal but can conduct electricity like a metal. Simultaneously, it can pull many times like rubber, so it can easily stretch and compress.
It’s many times lighter than plastic, 200 times more durable than steel, and has a rubber-like tensile strength. It can make cars in super elite weight. Aircraft can be many times lighter and many times more stable than they are now.
The era began in 2004:
Two people(Professor Andre Geim and Professor Kostya Novoselov) discovered this miracle called graphene. They found this through an exciting and straightforward experiment. In the 1980s, we were only familiar with the following three forms of carbon. One is a diamond, and the other is graphite and then amorphous carbon.
Later they discovered fullerenes and carbon nanotube, and they found graphene in 2004.
Two physicists split the carbon with pencil tip graphite on a tape similar to the cello tape. Two layers of graphite are divided. Then they clung to it again and again and again and again. As they partitioned each layer, it eventually left them with a single layer of 2D-shaped called “graphene,” which was only an atom’s size.
The research, conducted in 2004, raised eyebrows among many scientists. The reason was that until then, they believed it was not possible to split graphite into a single layer (thermodynamically unstable).
So in 2010, they awarded them the Nobel Prize for his research on tape and pencil.
Graphene’s uniqueness has opened new doors in technology to many industries around the world. It has spawned countless new technological revolutions.
1. Using this as a membrane can revolutionize gas and liquid filtration control and make seawater much more comfortable to drink.
2. Its unique conductivity makes it one of the most powerful, flexible electronic devices in the world. We can make Nano Electronics into a machine.
3. It can use a composite to produce low weight and high stability vehicles, as mentioned earlier
4. We can make super-thin plastic materials with high strength as it is a light translucent material. Because it can save energy, the solar panel made of it absorbs the sunlight many times. It can store there and used when needed.
5. The new type can also produce high-capacity mobile batteries that can charge in seconds.
(What I say here is not even half of its use. (Search for “applications of graphene”) its applications will fill many pages)
Why has such a magnificent object not yet come into use?
With pencil and tape, we can easily separate the graphite. Still, no one has yet figured out how to extract it industrially. (chemical vapor deposition, epitaxial growth on SiC substrates, chemical reduction of exfoliated graphene oxide, liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of graphite, and unzipping of a carbon nanotube. Here are some methods, but they all have boundaries.)
If any of you can figure out how to split the “graphene” ,you are the person who will change the world tomorrow.