A history of plumbing
We’ve been doing the same thing for 4,000 years. Does that means we’ve “solved it”? I think not. (But why?)
Tracking down the roots of our sanitary sewers
3000–100 BCE Aegean Civilization — Isle of Crete (Minoans)
Crete was an island of variable climate and geography; it also had steep slopes.
Knowledge of “hydraulics” was quite evolved.
Until Roman times, Minoan plumbing and drainage were the most developed in what was then the Western World.
Drainage systems of terra-cotta pipe (clay pipe with bell & spigot joints, sealed with cement) and open-topped channelized drainage systems built of stone conveyed storm water primarily, but also human wastes. Some of the sewers were large enough for people to walk through.
Bathtubs with no drains were used. Latrines were flushed with water from large jars.
Many of the drains from 2000 BCE are still in beneficial service today on Crete.
The Royal Palace at Knossos had a latrine on the ground floor with a rooftop “overhead” water reservoir (which collected rainwater): the first flush toilet!? The toilet consisted of a wooden seat, earthenware “pan,” and the rooftop reservoir as a source of water.