Istio — Part 1: Discovering Services

As we start building applications with microservice architecture sooner or later we always find ourselves in a spot where we want to visualize and monitor our entire deployment in a single screen. Also debugging a bug in microservice is really complex and time consuming. To ease it up, everyone felt the need of observability and controllability of their distributed architecture. Istio is one of the tools that actually solves these problems.

So here I will try to discuss what is Istio and will take a use case based approach to see most of the features of Istio in here and upcoming blogs.

What is Istio?

Istio is a service-mesh.

I think this is most simplest and wholesome definition I have come through so far. Let me break this down. Istio gathers a set of tools like Envoy, Grafana, Prometheus and many others to enable developers to write code in for controlling distributed architecture in a simple manner. Why need Istio, when I have these tools to use independently. Yes, you can. But obviously you don’t want it. Istio abstracts all the inner-workings of those tools and made it easy for developers to work with.

Istio architecture consists of four components.

  • Envoy: It’s the only part of the data plane in Istio. It will be injected as a sidecar proxy to each pod and now any request will be incoming to or outgoing from a pod will pass through Envoy Proxy. Envoy was built by Lyft. You can edit Envoy proxy and can build your own service mesh but I will highly discourage you to do so.
  • Pilot: Responsible mostly service discovery and traffic management. It is a component of control plane.
  • Citadel: Maintains service-to-service and end user authentication by built in authentication and credentials managements. Handles certificates to enable https connection throughout the service-mesh. It is also a part of control plane.
  • Galley: Your Trusted Buddy !!! Does all the validation, parsing and ingestion of yaml configuration we write to make changes in Istio service mesh. It is also a part of control plane.

Istio is platform independent, can be deployed to Kubernetes, Nomad, Consul. But so far, Kubernetes is the most popular to use for distributed architecture application. Using Istio with Kubernetes is a powerful tool that is always gives edge of simplicity in system management and will ensure a good night sleep.

Endgoal

Let’s see the use case.

Expected Architecture

Let’s say we have this picture for our architecture. In today’s discussion we will use just only the traffic management portion of Istio.

Here at the very below we have our kubernetes deployment as usual. So what we want is this

Requirements

  • We need to have istioctl installed in your pc. For mac, I used brew install istioctl You can find the installation guide here
  • Check the version using istioctl version --remote=false
  • Connect your kubernetes cluster via your terminal. Use kubectl config current-context to see if you are in the current cluster
  • Let’s install Istio in our cluster. Run istioctl manifest apply --set profile=demo
  • If installed successfully, you can check the pods by kubectl get pods -n istio-system
Istio Installation Log

Steps to success

  • I will be uploading all the codes in here. So I cloned it and go into the project directory via terminal.
  • Now let’s build the docker image for userusing docker build . -t your_image_name -f Dockerfile.user & publish it to docker registry using docker push your_image_name
  • Do the same for product using docker build . -t your_image_name -f Dockerfile.product and publish it to docker registry using docker push your_image_name
  • As we said, we need istio proxy per pod to track the requests and other istio functionality. So we need to enable istio-injection per namespace basis. As we will be working in default namespace so let us modify the labels of it via yaml file and use kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/1-namespace.yaml (I am assuming we are in work directory)
1-namespace.yaml
  • Now let’s run kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/2-user-microservice.yaml which will create user pods and user-service that will handle requests to user pods.
2-user-microservice.yaml
  • Now let’s run kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/2-product-microservice.yaml which will create product pods and product-service that will handle requests to product pods.
3-product-microservice.yaml
  • At this point you have a simple kubernetes deployment with proxy per pods basis and cluster ip services to the handle the request. You can simply connect to cluster ip service with port forwarding at point. But we will do better than that. Now we will make some Istio magic to expose our services to the world.

Gateway

A Gateway is a service that handles the incoming requests to a service mesh. When we installed Istio in our cluster, by default we have a ingressgateway service in istio-systemnamespace.

  • Get the list of gateways by running kubectl get gw -n istio-system
  • Get the details by kubectl get gw ingressgateway -n istio-system -o yaml

At this point we will be deleting the default ingressgateway by running kubectl delete gw ingressgateway -n istio-system

Now let’s write our own gateway. What we will do is we will have a server configuration on port 80 which will accept HTTP request for 3 hosts named microservice.retailvoice.xyz, user.microservice.retailvoice.xyz and product.microservice.retailvoice.xyz.

4-gateway.yaml

Now create our gateway by running kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/4-gateway.yaml

VirtualService

A virtualservice defines some rules that will be applied when the host is addressed. As we have three hosts, we will be writing 3 virtual services.

We will just forward all the traffic to our cluster ip service when user.microservice.retailvoice.xyz is requested.

I request to go through the code snippets. Most of the things are commented

5-user-virtual-service.yaml
  • Create the virtual service using kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/5-user-virtual-service.yaml

Do the same for product virtual service

  • Create the virtual service using kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/6-product-virtual-service.yaml
  • You can list all the virtual services by using kubectl get vs

At this point we need to sort out our dns records. By default with Istio installation we get a load balancer istio-system namespace named istio-ingressgateway We can run kubectl get svc istio-ingressgateway -n istio-system to get the external address of the load balancer. Then change the dns record appropriately to point to external address.

istio-ingressgateway

I have forwarded my 3 domains to the external ip of the load balancer in my dns manager.

Now if you want to request the http://user.microservice.retailvoice.xyz, http://user.microservice.retailvoice.xyz/about, http://product.microservice.retailvoice.xyz and http://product.microservice.retailvoice.xyz/latest then we should get the responses. I will use curl for this.

logs for the curl

Now let’s move on matched route handling. For this let’s write a virtual service for microservice.retailvoice.xyz

7-microservice-virtual-service.yaml

Now deploy the virtual service with matched routes to cluster by kubectl apply -f k8s/1-discovering-services/7-microservice-virtual-service.yaml

logs for matching route curl

Visualization

It’s always better to visual how my distributed system works. Kiali is shipped with Istio just to do that. When you install Istio, you get Kiali by default.

  • Start Kiali dasboard by running istioctl dashboard kiali
  • Login using username admin and password admin These are the default one. You can change it if you want.

Make some requests to the urls and in the graph section under Workload Graph you might follow something like this

Kiali Dashboard

Last Words

Looks like it’s all worked. Yay !!!

You can find all the code in the repo with tag 1-discovering-services I am also adding quick link for the tag here. I am planning to write my next blog on weight routing, canary releases, consistent hashing and dark releases using Istio. Please subscribe to get latest updates.

Happy Coding !!!

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Raju Ahmed Shetu

Raju Ahmed Shetu

Father | Engineer | Tech Enthusiast | Happy