The original idea to use rubber to erase pencil marks first appeared in a paper submitted to the French Academy in 1753 and was signed by Magellan, but it was an English engineer Edward Nairne, who, in 1770, developed and sold the first wide marked eraser. According to him, he invented it by accidentally picking up a piece of rubber instead of breadcrumbs. Yes, back in the day, bread was used to erase pencil, so as sandstone and anything else that was good at scratching. After invention of vulcanization, a way to cure rubber, by Charles Goodyear, an eraser became an instant hit and a common item in any household. The idea to put an erase at the end of a pencil belongs to Hymen Lipman, who patented his invention on March 30, 1858. These days erasers are everywhere, a constant companion to a good pencil.
Bikinis appeared all over history, from Roman times and beyond, after all, a woman in a tiny undergarment could be considered to be wearing a bikini, but those are just bikini-like clothes, rather than a modern day swimwear. The bikini, the one we all know and love, was invented by a French automobile engineer, and a part time designer, Louis Réard. He named it after the above ground atomic test in the Bikini Atoll, an interesting name for a swimsuit. It was presented to the world by a 19-year-old dance Micheline Bernardini, as regular models refused to wear the skimpy underwear. One of the biggest controversies that surround the Bikini was that it exposed the wearer’s belly button, and of course, nobody likes to see a belly button. But you cannot fight progress or fashion, and slowly the bikini spread all over the western world. Its popularity grew during the sexual revolution in 1960 and then it was adopted by many celebrities. The bikini appeared in many movies on a lot of beautiful women, including Bond Girl Ursula Andress and her famous “out of the water” run in Dr. No. The bikini popularly still grows to this day and it is considered to be the most popular beach wear all around the globe, even though 85% of all bikinis never touch the water.
Textbooks, as in text that are used to educate, first appeared in the ancient Greece. The first book on the Greek grammar was written by Dionysius Thrax in 120 BC, and first known mathematical textbook was Euclid’s Elements and was written in 300 BC. The invention of a printing press in 15th-century gave a huge boost to the books production, and textbooks became cheaper and more accessible. With introduction of compulsory education all over Europe, textbooks were printed in masses and soon became an important part of any schooling. Ebook formats pushed textbooks off paper and into electronic devices, making great textbooks easier to find and, in many cases, cheap or even free.