Individual Donation and Philanthropy
Donation and charity roles vary from country to country. Cultural structure of societies, socio-economic levels, social welfare state, state models and taxation laws are the most important factors in this differentiation. However, despite all this differentiation, the concept of donation appears in two forms: individual aid and public benefit foundations.
According to the World Donation Index, 144 million adult people in the U.S donate money. According to this list, India (265 million people) comes first and Indonesia (146 million people) comes as second. When we review the proportions of adult donors: Myanmar in first place with 91%, Indonesia ranked second with 79% and Malta takes third place with 73% of total adult donors. When review the rates of donors to helping people who they do not know at all, there is a decrease compared to the previous years. In 2016, 61 million people in Pakistan helped someone they did not know at all, this figure is 340 million in India and China, 188 million in the United States and 41 million in Germany.
According to a study conducted in Europe in 2015, the total amount of personal donations in Europe is 24.4 billion Euros, while the total amount of personal donations in the U.S is $ 229 billion, in Turkey $ 1.30 billion. The UK meets half of the donation granted in Europe with a donation of 11.5 billion Euros. The largest donation in Europe is made by British donors with 402 Euros annually while French donors follow 400 Euros and Swiss donors with 314 Euros. According to this research conducted in 10 European countries, the minimum donation is made by Italian donors with 43 Euros per year. According to research carried out in Turkey, Turkish donors donate 228 ₺ per year. However, donors make their donations more to their close surroundings and beggars. It is observed that Turkish donors donate only 16.70 ₺ per year to NGOs.
When we review the ratio of the donations made by the adult population to the GDP of the countries, U.S are at 1.5%, 0.2% in European countries while this ratio remains at 0.06% in Turkey. It is noteworthy that Switzerland, Sweden and the Netherlands, whose GDP is higher than other European countries, are at the end. Although the donor adult population in these countries is high, the GDP ratio remains low. The most important reason for this is that the social inequality in these countries is relatively low compared to other countries. As a result, it can be said that social inequality in a country or region that is further recognized, and that encountering more needy people is one of the most important factors that contributes to the rise of social solidarity.
Among the primary reasons for Europeans to make donations are social welfare, international aid and religious factors. These three factors vary from country to country, allowing people to choose which institution to donate. In Germany, Belgium and Sweden, international and humanitarian aids are seen as the first priority. However, in France and Spain, the increase in social welfare for its needy citizens is the first priority. In England and the Netherlands, religious factors are the first priority. Donors make donations accordingly. Advantages such as tax discounts and tax cuts provided by the state in Europe encourage people and institutions to make donations.
Public benefit foundations and charity organizations
While there are around 100,000 foundations in the US, there are a total of 107,000 public-benefit foundations in European countries where the study was conducted. (There are nearly 130.000 foundations in Europe). There are a total of 3,320 foundations in Turkey. Germany ranks first with 19.150 foundations. The second place is Poland with 15,778 foundations and Spain with 3,196 foundations in the third place. The foundations in Europe are around 20 to 30 years old. In the mentioned European countries, due the number of legal and economic law reforms in the 2000s, public benefit foundation and charity organization numbers has increased since.
As a proof of philanthropy and donation throughout Europe, 30 foundation drops per 100,000 people. However, it should be noted that this number varies according to regions within the countries. In France, for example, there are only six foundations per 100,000 people. This number falls far behind the average figures. Similarly, there are significant differences in east and west in Germany. In this distribution, we can say that the factors such as the development time of the foundation sector in the countries and the social economic levels of the regions plays a big role.
The total sum of funds reserved for charity and the immovable assets of public benefit foundations in the European countries examined is 426 billion Euros. The total annual expenditure of public benefit foundations in the countries surveyed is estimated to be € 54 billion. The priority of foundations in Europe is usually health problems and social welfare. The assets and spending ratio of foundations are 12% in Europe and 7% in the USA.
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¹ — CAF World Giving Index / October 2017 — www.cafonline.org/docs/default-source/about-us-publications/cafworldgivingindex2017_2167a_web_210917.pdf?sfvrsn=ed1dac40_10
² — Observatoire de la Fondation de France/CERPhi / April 2015 “An overview of philanthropy in Europe” — http://efc.issuelab.org/resource/an-overview-of-philanthropy-in-europe.html
³⁻⁵ — Third Sector Foundation of Turkey (TUSEV) / September 2016 “Individual Giving And Philanthropy In Turkey” — https://www.tusev.org.tr/usrfiles/images/belgeler/Individual_Giving_and_Philanthropy_in_Turkey.pdf
⁴⁻⁶ — “An overview of philanthropy in Europe” study has been conducted in 10 countries. These 10 countries represent %78 of Europe (Eurostat) — Belgium— France — Germany — Italy— Netherlands— Polond — Spain— Swiss — Swiden — United Kingdom
⁷ — T.R. DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF FOUNDATIONS / 2015