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ixo Journal
The Internet of Impact

Immunity Bonds are an application of the ixo Alphabond sustainable DeFi innovation, which we propose could finance and incentivise pupulation-wide public health interventions for the next generation of Covid epidemic control.

We recently published an article introducing an initiative in which ixo is a technology partner, to create the next generation of Covid sense-and respond technologies for Precision Public Health and decentralised epidemic management. This is the evolution of a global digital immune system for humanity.

In this article we describe how the ixo innovation of Alphabonds, which implement a novel risk-adjusted bonding curve automated market-maker, can be used to…


The vision of creating a digital immune system for humanity took on new meaning and relevance since the start of the global Covid-19 pandemic. Now we are making progress on implementing this vision to transform how the world senses and responds to Covid and its ongoing variant outbreaks.

Covid Sense-and-Response networks

We have been researching and developing the ixo protocol since 2014, applying the biomimetic principles of the immune system to design an Internet of Impact.

This new stateful, programmable, graph-based, trusted Internet, which is formed by interconnected ixo protocol blockchain networks, enables decentralised sustainable finance and impact verification applications to be rapidly…


The rising tide of the impact economy is driven by capital flows from traditional funding sources. However, this comes with growing costs of knowing (or not knowing) whether the investments are achieving impact. On the horizon is a deep, highly liquid token economy that could transform this landscape with valuable data assets, insights & proof of impact.

All of us — business leaders, employees, pension savers, investors, entrepreneurs, governments, philanthropists, consumers, citizens — will place impact at the core of our decisions and actions, to create a world that works. A world of sustainable shared prosperity, and of social and…


This article continues the series of explorations into the features of the Cosmos blockchain and Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol, within the context of the ixo network, which is building on Cosmos to provide the infrastructure for a decentralised internet of impact.

Bonding is a fundamental organising principle in nature, which enables complex, information-rich structures to evolve that are capable of surviving threats

Electronic rights and object capabilities

The Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC) protocol will enable electronic rights to be securely transferred between distinct decentralised administrative domains, such as blockchain networks.

Electronic rights can be secured by collateralised guarantees. Guarantees are also rights, which are exercised if there are defaults on primary rights.

Cosmos blockchains and the IBC protocol are built using the Object Capability model (Ocap) for…


We need additional crypto-economic mechanisms for building more sustainable financing applications, such as tokenised impact bonds, that can dynamically adapt to changing risks over time within complex systems. Let’s begin this experimentation with a risk-adjusted token bonding curve pricing oracle.

Are fixed token bonding curves broken?

Most current implementations of Token Bonding Curves only support fixed (invariant) pricing functions. Variant parameters are constrained to the token supply and point-in-time demand (order quantity).

This may reduce complexity, compared to multi-dimensional curves. However, this limitation comes at the cost of informational asymmetries.

…prices are an instrument of communication and guidance which embody more information than we directly have…


Cosmic Bonding enables developers to build any application that needs to use algorithmically-determined token pricing to mint, burn or swap tokens on any Cosmos network implementing our SDK module.

Engineering token bonding curves

Algorithmic pricing functions (aka token bonding curves) have many potential use-case applications. The design space has been well described in a recent article by Paul Kohlhaas.

This is a vibrant and rapidly-evolving focus of crypto-economic engineering, with many potential Defiant use cases, such as automated market-makers (like Uniswap), decentralised exchanges (like Bancor), curation markets (like Relevant), development Impact Bonds (like ixo alpha-Bonds) and continuous organisations (like Moloch DAO).

A variety of…


We are excited to announce that ixo and Ocean Protocol have come together to address the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals using Blockchain and AI. Our first collaboration, alongside the South African-based initiative, FLOW (For Love of Water), will use technology to verify the efforts around the world to save the oceans.

In support of National Geographic’s Planet or Plastic campaign, we are asking the general public to take action against plastic consumption and pollution. This could mean switching to reusable coffee cups, collecting plastic waste from the beach, donating to a charity helping to protect the ocean, influencing change in…


The ixo Protocols provide innovative data verification and capital liquidity mechanisms enabling capital to be programmed for sustainability. These protocols are delivered through the ixo blockchain. This is built with Tendermint consensus and Cosmos modules and a bridging mechanism into the Ethereum network. Our article explains why we chose Tendermint with Cosmos and Ethereum to build a shared, global, censorship-resistant, open data and financing infrastructure for sustainable social, environmental and economic development. In an accompanying bridging article, we describe how we have built a 2-way peg between ixo-Cosmos and Ethereum.

Programming capital for sustainability

Capital can be programed to achieve specific financial results that…


The ixo blockchain provides a shared global infrastructure to program capital for sustainability using innovative financing applications, such as Smart Impact Bonds. We use Tendermint consensus and Cosmos modules as the backbone for running projects and data verification services. The Ethereum network provides the financial settlements layer and this also enables ixo projects to interoperate with the universe of Ethereum DApps.

Authors: Cedric Franz & Dr Shaun Conway

In this article we describe how we have built a 2-way bridging mechanism between the ixo Tendermint-Cosmos blockchain and smart contracts on Ethereum. …


We are excited to announce the third showcase project launching on ixo — The WASH System, in partnership with FLOW (For Love of Water).

For many years, The Langrug community near Cape Town in South Africa, has been plagues by poor water management. People resorted to depositing their grey water directly into the streets. This polluted existing water sources. It has led to safety and health issues within the community.

In 2015, The Genius of SPACE (Systems for People’s Access to A Clean Environment) project was piloted in more than 100 homes in this informal settlement. The solutions included building…

ixo Journal

The Internet of Impact

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