Upstream and Downstream Factors

Briefing Note

Upstream factors:

  • climate change
  • pressure to become “global cities”
  • existing sanitation systems
  • zoning policies

Downstream factors

  • urban development, the need to always be rapidly growing, ongoing construction
  • cheap parts manufacturing in China, easier access to materials
  • government’s insistence on only fixing sanitation systems when there is a problem
  • constant desire to build as close as possible to the shoreline
  • pressure on governments to build on every available space of land
  • continued use of dumping in water bodies
One clap, two clap, three clap, forty?

By clapping more or less, you can signal to us which stories really stand out.