How Ships and Forts Created Western Dominance

How could tiny nations such as Portugal and the Netherlands challenge vast empires like China and India in the age of sail?

Dutch men-o'-war and other shipping in a calm by Willem van de Velde II
Dutch men-o’-war and other shipping in a calm by Willem van de Velde II

Europe began as a backwater far behind great civilizations in India, China and in Muslim empires in the Middle East. 1498 was the year it all began to change. Explorer Vasco da Gama

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Erik Engheim

Erik Engheim

Geek dad, living in Oslo, Norway with passion for UX, Julia programming, science, teaching, reading and writing.