Love for Law
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Love for Law

Is It Lawful to Enslave the Unconsenting?

Photo by Miko Guziuk on Unsplash
  1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948,
  2. Slavery Convention, 1926,
  3. Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery, the Slave Trade, and Institutions and Practices Similar to Slavery, 1956,
  4. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1966,
  7. Barcelona Traction, Light and Power Co, Ltd. (Belgium v. Spain), Judgment of 5 February 1971, I.C.J. Reports, 1970, p. 32.
  8. Cambridge Dictionary,
  9. See generally Irina Buga, Modification of Treaties by Subsequent Practice 63–71, 209 (2018).
  11. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1973,
  12. Joel Feinberg, Social Philosophy (Prentice-Hall 1973) 67.
  13. Supreme Court of India 7 May 2014, civil appeal no 5387 of 2014 [27] [56] [62ff]; see further Kerala High Court 6 June 2000, AIR 2000 KER 340 (expressing the opinion that ‘legal rights shall not be the exclusive preserve of the humans’, [13]); Delhi High Court 15 May 2015, CRL MC no 2051/2015 [3] [5] (recognizing birds’ ‘fundamental rights to fly in the sky’).
  14. eg Richard L Cupp, ‘Children, Chimps, and Rights: Arguments from “Marginal” Cases’ (2013) 45 Ariz St LJ 1; see also Christine M Korsgaard, Fellow Creatures: Our Obligations to the Other Animals (OUP 2018) 116ff.
  17. Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, 1972,



Legal blog of international environmental law and sustainable development. We write about climate change policy and legislation of international law subjects and steps they are taking towards sustainable future as well as analysis of environmental issues.

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