Linux Disk Cache was always there…

Rui Grafino
Published in
11 min readDec 16, 2020


Native cache on improving read/write performance and how to improve its benefits while being more aware

Table of contents

  • Linux Read/Write Performance
  • Simple Reads
  • Appending to a cached file
  • Writing files
  • Caching multiple files
  • Caching a huge file
  • Native Page Cache vs Dedicated Caching Services
  • Summary
  • References


Some of the explanations and description are far more abbreviated and simpler than what’s really occurring under the hood for the sake of simplicity and understanding of those not much involved or interested in the subject. Avoiding a deep dive into technical details like pages, block sizes or more complex terms and operations is deliberate.

Linux Read/Write Performance

While managing memory the Linux Kernel uses a native caching mechanism called page cache or disk cache to improve performance of reads and writes.

To put it simple: Its main purpose is to copy data and binary files from storage to memory, thus reducing disk I/O and improving overall performance. This is especially true if there is some kind of workloads that opens frequently the same files or some other kind of I/O expensive operations.

The page cache is also used while writing to disk, not only reading, but we will get there in a moment.

By default, all free physical memory is used by the operating system for the page cache purposes and depending on the workloads the Operating System manages its state, caching, re-using and evicting files as needed.

Even with the current faster Solid-State Drives throughput having the files cached in memory brings a performance improvement to the system.

It’s also quite common some kind of misconception that the Operating System (Linux, Unix or BSD based), specially on mobile users that we might be short on free memory and that it needs some kind of optimisation to free memory as time elapses. In fact thats a really good thing and mean that a lot of things are already cached and many of our apps and files will run faster and from memory.

Important to keep always present that a cached memory is always a free available memory that will be reclaimed as needed without any penalty for those new running processes requiring it.

An optimum system is a system making use of practically all available resources (mainly true for RAM, CPU) for whats intended to do, immediately before any type of contention or decreased performance penalty start to emerge.

Simple Reads

Let’s look at a simple example using a 2GB file. For the sake of simplicity, the VM specs at the moment are not relevant, meaning that for now we just want to make sure we have more available memory than the size of the file we are reading.

First, we check our memory status to see how much we have available overall, buffers and cache values.

# free -wh
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 5.8G 94M 5.7G 608K 2.1M 49M 5.6G
Swap: 0B 0B 0B

We them generate a dummy file with 2GB in size and flush and delete all caches that might have occurred in the operation.

# head -c 2G </dev/urandom > dummy.file
# echo 3 > /proc/sys/vm/drop_caches

Then we count the number of lines in the file timing the execution duration:

# time wc -l dummy.file
8387042 dummy.file
real 0m3.731s
user 0m0.278s
sys 0m1.223s

We execute again the same command.

# time wc -l dummy.file
8387042 dummy.file
real 0m1.045s
user 0m0.575s
sys 0m0.471s

As we can clearly see the last execution took much less time and that’s because the file was cached in the page cache and that just by itself improved the reading operation. Let’s confirm the memory status values again.

# free -wh
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 5.8G 94M 3.7G 608K 2.1M 2.1G 5.5G
Swap: 0B 0B 0B

Now we can see that we have 2GB less in the free memory and now a lot more usage on buffers and cache.

The cache is the part of the memory which stores files and binaries, like shared libs, data so that future requests for that data can be served faster.

The buffers are metadata related to the cache.

Non cached read

Cached read

Now we will clean the caches again so that we return to our original state, but we will use a different command so that we are all aware of this possibility.

# sysctl -w vm.drop_caches=3

Doing the line count again takes the full time required to put the file in memory again, but before doing that let use a command to see if the file is cached.

The command vmtouch must be installed separately and can be used to check if a file or part of it is cached.

# vmtouch -v dummy.file
[ ] 0/524288
Files: 1
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 0/524288 0/2G 0%
Elapsed: 0.013999 seconds

Doing the line count after confirming that the file is not cached and is 0%.

# time wc -l dummy.file
8387042 dummy.file
real 0m3.732s
user 0m0.284s
sys 0m1.539s

What can we see after the first read in the vmtouch output?

# vmtouch -v dummy.file
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 524288/524288 2G/2G 100%
Elapsed: 0.024309 seconds

The file is fully cached so the next reads will be faster.

Appending to a cached file

If you append or change information on a cached file the end result will also be cached, if the available memory does not limit it. And following on the same rational the small.file was also cached since it was also read.

# cat small.file >> dummy.file# vmtouch -v dummy.file
Files: 1
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 786433/786433 3G/3G 100%
Elapsed: 0.035199 seconds

To those who haven’t noticed this was a write operation, so let’s move to understand how write and cache works.

Writing files

Like we mentioned earlier the page cache is also used when we write to disk to improve overall performance.

In Linux when we create a file, that file is initially written to page cache and only after some time or condition the file is flushed to disk.

It’s worth mention that this behaviour will depend on several factors like the type of Filesystem the file is being written to and System Calls invoked by applications. These combinations of factor result mainly into different types of I/O access.

Direct I/O

  • The files are immediately flushed to disk.
  • Possible performance issues if I/O subsystem or scheduler is very busy.
  • Many Storage and Databases systems use this method so that they control the Writes and not the Operating System.
  • Some filesystems support it by mounting flags.

Buffered I/O

  • Uses the file system buffer cache.
  • Much faster writes, because it’s done to memory first.
  • Creates some temporary dirty pages.
  • Potential loss or corruption of data if power is suddenly unplugged. (very rare)

With page cache we are using Buffered I/O access, let’s look at a simple example:

# free -wh
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 5.8G 92M 5.7G 608K 1.9M. 50M 5.6G
Swap: 0B 0B 0B
# head -c 1G </dev/urandom > small.file# free -wh
total used free shared buffers cache available
Mem: 5.8G 92M 4.7G 608K 1.9M 1.1G 5.5G
Swap: 0B 0B 0B

If there are no memory constraints the whole file is first written to memory and keeps Dirty Pages until is fully flushed.

Dirty Pages is the amount of information that is on page cache that is not yet synced to disk. The Kernel will eventually flush and sync all in memory information to disk.

Sometimes there are a lot of I/O workload happening or the scheduler might be busy running higher priority task. It will juggle and find the optimum timing for flushing data to disk so that it keeps performance in “mind”.

We can check the amount of data the is dirty:

# cat /proc/meminfo | grep Dirty
Dirty: 369536 kB

We can also force the sync to occur.

# sync# cat /proc/meminfo | grep Dirty
Dirty: 0 kB

Caching multiple files

Now let’s look into a more complex example where we have multiple files and the sum size of all those files is greater than the available memory for caching.

Let’s create 4 files of 2GB each, but now there is only available cache memory for 3 of them:

# head -c 2G </dev/urandom > dummy.file1
# head -c 2G </dev/urandom > dummy.file2
# head -c 2G </dev/urandom > dummy.file3
# head -c 2G </dev/urandom > dummy.file4

As we read (yellow) each file in order they will be stacked (green) on page cache.

When we read the next file and there is not enough memory for all 4 files to be cached one of them will be push out (red) of the stack. In this case file 1 (the older) will be push out.

If we again read the file that was push out what file will be left out?

To put it simply the one that gets pushed out of the cache now is the Least Recently Used aka LRU in Page Replacement Policy, replacing the cache entry that has not been used for the longest time in the past.

It’s important to mention that the exact algorithm is more complex that just a LRU and involves more than one list, for more information refer to the current kernel documentation.

If we reuse an existing cached file it will go up in the stack as is a more frequently accessed file.

Depending on the number of files, their size and available memory, the cached content can be just some portion of file/s.

We can see that with the vmtouch command:

# vmtouch -v dummy.file1
[ oOOOOO] 45414/524288
Files: 1
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 45414/524288 177M/2G 8.66%
Elapsed: 0.035156 seconds

Caching a huge file

What happens to page cache when we read a file much bigger that the available memory on our system?

If a file is much bigger than the available memory by now should be clear that only portions of the file will be kept in page cache. But how it will impact performance while computing data from that file?

Let’s try to cache a big file

# time wc -l big.file
33544011 big.file
real 0m14.426s
user 0m1.202s
sys 0m6.737s
# vmtouch -v big.file
Files: 1
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 1621005/2097152 6G/8G 77.3%
Elapsed: 0.077948 seconds

The file is 8GB but as we can see from the output of vmtouch only 6GB could fit in page cache. What does this mean in performance? Lets reprocess the file to see if we gain performance.

# time wc -l big.file
33544011 big.file
real 0m14.260s
user 0m1.959s
sys 0m4.741s

The performance didn’t improve while reading the hole file again. But why?

As the file is being read and doing the read caching it doesn’t fit all in memory like we saw in vmtouch. What is happening is a kind of sliding window and the beginning of the file always remains out of the cache.

The file head is out of cache, but if we try to read the file tail?

# time tail -5000000 big.file >/dev/null
real 0m4.696s
user 0m2.687s
sys 0m2.001s

How this compares with an un-cached tail? Let’s clean all caches and do just the same tail.

# sysctl -w vm.drop_caches=3# time tail -5000000 big.file >/dev/null
real 0m34.682s
user 0m2.987s
sys 0m4.379s
# time tail -5000000 big.file >/dev/null
real 0m4.524s
user 0m2.649s
sys 0m1.873s
# vmtouch -v big.file
[ oOOOOOOOO] 312460/2097152
Files: 1
Directories: 0
Resident Pages: 312460/2097152 1G/8G 14.9%
Elapsed: 0.080427 seconds

Clearly, we had a huge benefit from doing a tail when he read the whole file because although it didn’t fit all in page cache, the portion we were using was cached.

As processing the end of file worked, the same would happen if we did just that for the head or some other part of the file.

We need to have this in mind for big data files as we can clearly get a performance improvement if we have cached the portions of the file we intend to work with.

Some beforehand strategy in caching files can increase performance of read and writes.

Native Page Cache vs Dedicated Caching Services

How does Linux page cache perform vs dedicated caching services, either storage cache or content based?

First, we need to understand that a dedicated caching services or a in memory processing service serves a very specific purpose and workload, and any direct comparison is always unbalanced and, in some cases, does not apply.

But for sure any local disk caching performed by the kernel itself will always be faster than using a local dedicated service on top of it, and much faster than using a remote caching server.

Any of these services have (most of the times) is configured on top of Linux itself. Specially if it is a distributed service not only, we have to account for all coordination and discovery processing between nodes but also all possible network latencies and roundtrips.

Some different types of caching:

Client-side caching

  • Disk Cache
  • DNS Cache
  • Browser Cache

Network based caching

  • Content Delivery Networks
  • Web Proxy servers

Server level Caching

  • Webserver Caching
  • Application Caching or In Memory Processing
  • Database and Storage Caching


Page cache its simple, its native to the OS, and provides clear performance improvements while reading and writing data. Plays an important role in the OS native processes and sharing data and libs between processes optimising kernel and user space executions.

Understanding it contributes to do better-informed decisions on what needs to be cached, what to cache, when to cache and if it’s in fact required a dedicated service for caching. If its local most of the times is never needed.

Many services make use of it natively and some of them implement different layers of caching for specific workloads, especially databases.

Much more information could have been explored like the memory management subsystem, the cache and performance tuning, managing swap, different filesystems, kernel parameters and specific caching services deep dives but that was not the purpose for this article.




Rui Grafino

DevOps, SRE, Cloud, Open Source , Tech —