Deciphering the Multifaceted Etiology of Cancer

Freedom Preetham
Meta Multiomics
Published in
4 min readFeb 9, 2024


The etiological complexity of cancer, characterized by its multifactorial genesis and progression, presents a significant challenge to the contemporary understanding of oncogenesis. This complexity transcends the mere accumulation of genetic mutations, extending into the realms of epigenetic regulation, environmental interactions, stochastic cellular processes, and the nuanced dynamics of the cellular microenvironment. In an endeavor to elucidate the intricate mechanisms underpinning cancer, this discourse engages with the latest advancements in functional genomics and oncology, specially for pre-clinical research.

Genetic Determinants and Oncogenic Drivers

Cancer originates from a confluence of somatic and germline genetic alterations that disrupt the homeostatic balance of cellular proliferation and apoptosis. The advent of high-throughput sequencing methodologies has facilitated a granular dissection of cancer’s mutational landscape, revealing a plethora of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes pivotal in tumorigenesis. Prototypically, mutations within the TP53 gene, which encodes the guardian of the genome, p53, epitomize the critical role of genetic aberrations in compromising genomic integrity.

The Epigenomic Modulation of Cancer Phenotypes

Beyond the static blueprint of DNA, epigenetics offers a dynamic layer of regulation, encompassing DNA methylation, histone modifications, and the intricate interplays of non-coding RNAs. These epigenetic machineries orchestrate gene expression, and their dysregulation is a hallmark of the oncogenic phenotype. The aberrant methylation of CpG islands and the dysregulation of microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs exemplify the epigenetic derangements that propel cancer progression and metastasis, thereby contributing to the tumor’s phenotypic heterogeneity and its adaptive resistance mechanisms.

Environmental Exposures and Exogenous Modulators

The exposome, encapsulating the totality of an individual’s environmental exposures, exerts a profound influence on cancer risk and trajectory. Carcinogenic agents, through direct DNA damage or the induction of oxidative stress, along with lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity, interplay with genetic and epigenetic landscapes, modulating oncogenesis. These exogenous factors underscore the necessity of incorporating environmental and lifestyle metrics into comprehensive cancer risk assessments and therapeutic paradigms.

Stochasticity and the Tumor Microenvironment

Stochastic fluctuations in gene expression and molecular interactions contribute to the inherent heterogeneity observed within and across tumor populations. This stochasticity, coupled with the dynamic interplay between cancer cells and their microenvironment — including immune cells, stromal components, and the extracellular matrix — underscores the complexity of targeting oncogenic processes. The tumor microenvironment not only facilitates tumoral evolution and metastatic dissemination but also plays a pivotal role in modulating responses to therapeutic interventions.

Gene Expression Variance

To distill the multifaceted etiology of cancer into a coherent framework, I have presented a rough integrative table that synthesizes the contributions of genetics, epigenetics, environmental factors, and stochastic cellular dynamics.

In a hypothetical scenario wherein two identical cell types are derived from individuals of the same age group, sex, ethnicity, and cell nutrient level and subjected to the precise induction of identical DNA and epigenetic markers, one posits a question regarding the degree of variance in gene expression profiles between these two cells.

Under these conditions, it is anticipated that the gene expression patterns would exhibit a high degree of similarity, estimated at approximately 80%-90%. The residual variability, accounting for the remaining 10%, is attributed to factors intrinsic to the cellular context and stochastic variability inherent in biological systems.

high-level view of contributors to cancer

The 20% variability delineated in the table represents exogenous variables influencing epigenetic modifications, cellular context — including signaling mechanisms — and nutrient availability. Consequently, a cumulative 90% of the variability is explicable through an understanding of cellular context, albeit this estimation should be considered a high-level approximation. This assertion emphasizes the limitations of both in-silico and in-vitro experiments in fully capturing the complexities of in-vivo conditions.

Cancer’s complexity, rooted in genetic, epigenetic, environmental, and random factors, necessitates a multidisciplinary approach for comprehensive understanding and effective treatment. The fusion of functional genomics, epigenetic profiling, environmental science, and systems biology is crucial for developing an integrated model of cancer’s origins and progression. Advancements in precision oncology rely on this collaborative effort across scientific fields to innovate diagnostic and therapeutic methods, marking a new era in cancer care.

Cognit’s Innovation

Cognit.AI is pioneering the advancement of cancer research and treatment by harnessing foundational AI models built from ground-up to explore the genetic and epigenetic underpinnings of cancer. By focusing on the precision mapping of genetic mutations and the intricate world of epigenetic regulation, Cognit is able to identify key oncogenic drivers and aberrant epigenetic modifications that contribute to cancer’s initiation, progression, and resistance to treatment.

One of the main innovation is the ability to simulate 5000+ cell environments and the intricate dynamics within these environments given a whole genome as an input. With this you can understand how the gene is differentially expressed across cell-types and condition.

This dual approach enables the creation of targeted therapies tailored to the unique molecular profile of an individual’s cancer, enhancing treatment efficacy. The integration of sophisticated genomic sequencing and epigenetic profiling techniques allows Cognit to delve deep into the complexities of cancer, leading to the development of innovative diagnostics and therapeutic strategies. Through its commitment to understanding these fundamental aspects of cancer biology, Cognit is at the forefront of advancing pre-clinical research, offering new hope for improved patient outcomes.