How to run your DevOps using Docker containers

This post is part of a series: Introduction to Microservices for .NET Developers

In a previous post, we used Docker to build a container image that has our application and run it locally. In this post we will go through applying DevOps to this application.

The DevOps pipeline should go like this:

In this post we will focus on the Ship part, and in a future post we will cover the Run part using Kubernetes.

What are Docker Tags?

Previously we when we referenced container images we used terms like:

microsoft/dotnet:2.1-aspnetcore-runtime

In this case we are requesting an image that is:

Note that this tag specify a specific version (2.1) with specific components (aspnetcore-runtime). In some other cases tags can also specify base OS like: stretch or jessie. Look at the other tags available in this repo: microsoft/dotnet

In this repo, they are using semantic versioning, for example there are other tags like 2 and 2.1.401 that refer to the same image. This way you can reference a very specific minor version which means even if microsoft produced a newer version you will not use it. Or you can reference only version 2 which will get the latest version under major version 2.

Note that when you download an image you only choose one tag (not multiple) that’s why tags are strings that can be composed of all the options described above.

Also when you don’t specify a tag, Docker will always use a tag named “latest”. From the name of this tag, it should refer to the latest stable version with default configurations/component. But it’s the responsibility of the repo owner to manage which image gets this tag.

How to create my private Docker Registry

Even if you will publish your docker images to the public on Docker Hub. You will probably need to develop and test them privately, apply your DevOps pipeline privately, and then when you reach a stable version, you push it to the public registry.

If you are using the cloud, you can easily spin a private registry that is managed by your cloud provider, like: Azure Container Registry, AWS, Google

If you want to try everything on your development server, luckily there is already a container image that you can pull and it will be this registry. For the sake of simplicity here is the easiest command to run a registry on your local machine:

docker run -d -p 5000:5000 --restart=always --name registry registry:2

This will pull the latest image from a repo named “registry” on Docker Hub and will run it, forward port localhost:5000 to port 5000 inside the container.

Later, you can check how to secure this registry.

Push an image to our private registry

Now lets download a sample image from Docker Hub, or you can use your own built image name:

docker pull microsoft/dotnet-samples

Tag the image as localhost:5000/mysample. This creates an additional tag for the existing image. When the first part of the tag is a hostname and port, Docker interprets this as the location of a registry, when pushing.

docker tag microsoft/dotnet-samples localhost:5000/mysample

Push the image to the local registry running at localhost:5000

docker push localhost:5000/mysample

Now you can open: http://localhost:5000/v2/_catalog from browser to see that your repository is created.

To add another tag to same image and push it:

docker tag localhost:5000/mysample localhost:5000/mysample:1.0
docker push localhost:5000/mysample:1.0

You can check the available tags by browsing: http://localhost:5000/v2/mysample/tags/list

My approach for DevOps tags

Till now we shipped our container from development machine or build server to a registry that is available to ITOps who can download to run on servers.

Also we provided a way to version/tag these containers in a way that allow ITOps to identify which version they want to use.

My approach is to tag an image with version and branch name. So in a gitflow configuration where we have master branch for stable version and develop branch for development version, I generate a tag “develop” for the latest version of the develop branch + a tag “master” for the latest version of the master branch + tags for version numbers like “1.0.5” with semantic versioning. This way ITOps can configure the development environment to always pull from “develop” tag, staging environment to always pull from “master” tag and if they need to deploy an older specific version they can pull if from the version tags.

This is my approach that worked for me, just take it as a sample, but according to your plans and how you deploy you should create your own approach.

Read next..

How to run your DevOps using Kubernetes

What is microservices and why is it different?

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Bishoy Labib

Software Architect building cloud products with microservices, .NET, Node and Kubernetes